Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 364, Issue 1–2, pp 93–100 | Cite as

De novo characterization of the antler tip of Chinese Sika deer transcriptome and analysis of gene expression related to rapid growth

  • Baojin Yao
  • Yu ZhaoEmail author
  • Qun Wang
  • Mei Zhang
  • Meichen Liu
  • Hailong Liu
  • Juan LiEmail author


Deer antlers are well known for their regeneration and rapid growth. However, little is known about the genes that are involved in their development, especially the molecular mechanisms responsible for rapid growth. In the present study, we produced more than 41 million sequencing reads using the Illumina sequencing platform. These reads were assembled into 89,001 unique sequences (mean size: 450 bp), representing more than 58 times as many Sika deer sequences previously available in the NCBI database (as of Sep 15, 2011). Based on a similarity search with known proteins, we identified 40,088 sequences with a cut-off E value of 10−5. Assembled sequences were then annotated using Gene ontology terms, Clusters of Orthologous Groups classifications, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. In addition, we found a number of highly expressed genes involved in the regulation of Sika deer antler rapid growth, including transcription factors, signaling molecules, and extracellular matrix proteins. Our data represent the most comprehensive sequence resource available for the deer antler and provide a basis for new research on deer antler molecular genetics and functional genomics.


Chinese Sika deer Antler tip Transcriptome Gene expression Rapid growth 



Gene ontology


Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins


Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes



This study was supported by the National Key Technology Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011BAI03B00), and the National Science and Technology Major Project of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2011ZX09401-305-09).

Supplementary material

11010_2011_1209_MOESM1_ESM.xls (76 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 76 kb)
11010_2011_1209_MOESM2_ESM.xls (10.8 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (XLS 11031 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Public HealthJilin UniversityChangchunChina
  2. 2.Center for New Medicine ResearchChangchun University of Chinese MedicineChangchunChina
  3. 3.Institute of Life SciencesFuzhou UniversityFuzhouChina

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