Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 359, Issue 1–2, pp 301–313

Thrombin and vascular inflammation

  • Milan Popović
  • Katarina Smiljanić
  • Branislava Dobutović
  • Tatiana Syrovets
  • Thomas Simmet
  • Esma R. Isenović
Article

Abstract

Vascular endothelium is a key regulator of homeostasis. In physiological conditions it mediates vascular dilatation, prevents platelet adhesion, and inhibits thrombin generation. However, endothelial dysfunction caused by physical injury of the vascular wall, for example during balloon angioplasty, acute or chronic inflammation, such as in atherothrombosis, creates a proinflammatory environment which supports leukocyte transmigration toward inflammatory sites. At the same time, the dysfunction promotes thrombin generation, fibrin deposition, and coagulation. The serine protease thrombin plays a pivotal role in the coagulation cascade. However, thrombin is not only the key effector of coagulation cascade; it also plays a significant role in inflammatory diseases. It shows an array of effects on endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, monocytes, and platelets, all of which participate in the vascular pathophysiology such as atherothrombosis. Therefore, thrombin can be considered as an important modulatory molecule of vascular homeostasis. This review summarizes the existing evidence on the role of thrombin in vascular inflammation.

Keywords

Thrombin Endothelium Vascular inflammation Atherosclerosis 

Abbreviations

AT

Antithrombin

APC

Activating protein C

CCL

Chemokine (C–C motif) ligand

cPLA2

Cytosolic phospholipase A2

CXCL

Chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand

cysLT

Cysteinyl leukotrienes

DCs

Dendritic cells

ECs

Endothelial cells

EDHF

Endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor

ERK

Extracellular signal regulated kinase

EGFR

Epidermal growth factor receptor

GPIb/IIb/IIIa

Glycoprotein Ib/IIb/IIIa

HLA

Human leukocyte antigen

ICAM-1

Intercellular adhesion molecule-1

IFN-γ

Interferon-γ

IL-1α/β

Interleukin-1α/β

IP-10

Inducible protein-10

LT

Leukotriene

LPS

Lipopolysacharide

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinase

M-CSF

Macrophage colony-stimulating factor

NO

Nitric oxide

PAI-1

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1

PAR

Protease-activated receptors

PDGF

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor

PF4

Platelet factor 4

PGE2

Prostaglandin E2

PGI2

Prostacyclin I2

PMN

Polymorphonuclear leukocytes

PSGL-1

P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1

RANTES

Regulated on activation, normal T expressed and secreted

TF

Tissue factor

TGF-β

Transforming growth factor-β

TFPI

Tissue factor pathway inhibitor

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

TXA2

Thromboxane A2

VCAM-1

Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

VSMCs

Vascular smooth muscle cells

vWF

von Willebrand factor

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Milan Popović
    • 1
  • Katarina Smiljanić
    • 1
  • Branislava Dobutović
    • 1
  • Tatiana Syrovets
    • 2
  • Thomas Simmet
    • 2
  • Esma R. Isenović
    • 1
  1. 1.Department for Radiobiology and Molecular Genetics, Vinča InstituteUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Institute of Pharmacology of Natural Products & Clinical PharmacologyUlm UniversityUlmGermany

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