Hyperketonemia decreases mitochondrial membrane potential and its normalization with chromium (III) supplementation in monocytes
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- Rains, J.L. & Jain, S.K. Mol Cell Biochem (2011) 349: 77. doi:10.1007/s11010-010-0662-8
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Altered cellular mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) has been implicated in the increased insulin resistance and the risk for diabetes. Hyperketonemia is increasingly being identified in type 2 diabetic patients in addition to those with type 1 diabetes. No previous study has examined the effect of hyperketonemia and trivalent chromium on cellular mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in any cell type. Using a U937 monocyte cell culture model, this study examined the hypothesis that hyperketonemia decreases and trivalent chromium normalizes the cellular MMP level. Cells were cultured with control and ketone bodies [acetoacetate (AA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)] in the absence or the presence (0.5–100 μM) of Cr3+ at 37°C for 24 h. The MMP was determined using DiOC6 and flow cytometry. The results show a significant decrease in MMP in cells treated with AA, but not in the cells treated with BHB. The effect of AA on cellular MMP was prevented in chromium (III)-pretreated cells. Thus, hyperketonemia decreases the MMP, and supplementation with chromium (III) normalizes altered MMP, which may play a role in the improvement in glucose metabolism seen after chromium (III) supplementation in some studies with diabetic animals and patients.