Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 341, Issue 1–2, pp 139–148 | Cite as

VEGF and IL-4 gene variability and its association with the risk of coronary heart disease in north Indian population

  • R. C. Sobti
  • Nishi Maithil
  • Hitender Thakur
  • Yashpaul Sharma
  • K. K. Talwar


Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic growth factor that has been shown to play a significant role in neovascularization during inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques, formation of collateral vessels to an area of ischemic myocardium and neovascularization at the edges of a myocardial infarction during its repair. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) has important role in immune cell chemotaxis, formation of endothelial cell adhesion molecules and has numerous anti-inflammatory effects which prevent the complications of atherosclerosis, the primary cause of coronary heart disease (CHD). In this study, we have analyzed the effect of 1154 A/G polymorphism of VEGF and 70 bp VNTR polymorphism of intron 3 in IL-4 genes in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients (n = 300) and their age matched controls (n = 300). To analyze polymorphic alleles, ARMS-PCR and RFLP techniques were used. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out with statistical software. GG genotype was associated with a decreased risk of development of CHD (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.12–0.38, P < 0.001). However, A allele showed an increased risk whereas G allele decreased the risk of CHD with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic mental stress and positive familial history of myocardial infarction (MI)/CHD. GG genotype was found to have protective effect with alcohol intake (OR 0.34, 95% CI 0.14–0.82, P < 0.01) and central obesity (OR 0.15, 95% CI 0.04–0.56, P < 0.001). GG genotype of VEGF has also shown significant association with IL-4 (P2P2 and P1P2) genotypes.


VEGF IL-4 Genetic polymorphism CHD Atherosclerosis Cytokine 



This work was supported by a grant from Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Ministry of Human Resource and Development, New Delhi, India. We thank Dr. Gurbir Singh and Dr. G. S. Kalra, Fortis Hospital, Mohali, India for their kind help and co-operation.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Sobti
    • 1
  • Nishi Maithil
    • 1
  • Hitender Thakur
    • 1
  • Yashpaul Sharma
    • 2
  • K. K. Talwar
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of CardiologyPost Graduate Institute of Medical Education and ResearchChandigarhIndia

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