Receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C): regulation and signal transduction
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Receptor guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is the target for the gastrointestinal hormones, guanylin, and uroguanylin as well as the bacterial heat-stable enterotoxins. The major site of expression of GC-C is in the gastrointestinal tract, although this receptor and its ligands play a role in ion secretion in other tissues as well. GC-C shares the domain organization seen in other members of the family of receptor guanylyl cyclases, though subtle differences highlight some of the unique features of GC-C. Gene knock outs in mice for GC-C or its ligands do not lead to embryonic lethality, but modulate responses of these mice to stable toxin peptides, dietary intake of salts, and development and differentiation of intestinal cells. It is clear that there is much to learn in future about the role of this evolutionarily conserved receptor, and its properties in intestinal and extra-intestinal tissues.