Advertisement

Harmonic oscillators: the quantization of simple systems in the old quantum theory and their functional roles in biology

  • Richard H. Steele
Article

Abstract

This article introduces quantum physics into biology in an intuitive and non-intimidating manner. It extends the quantum aspects of harmonic oscillators, and electromagnetic fields, to their functional roles in biology. Central to this process are the De Broglie wave-particle duality equation, and the adiabatic invariant parameters, magnetic moment, angular momentum and magnetic flux, determined by Ehrenfest as imposing quantum constraints on the dynamics of charges in motion. In mechanisms designed to explain the generation of low-level light emissions in biology we have adopted a biological analog of the electrical circuitry modeled on the parallel plated capacitor, traversed by helical protein structures, capable of generating electromagnetic radiation in the optical spectral region. The charge carrier required for the emissions is an accelerating electron driven, in a cyclotron-type mechanism, by ATP-induced reverse electron transfer with the radial, emission, components, mediated by coulombic forces within the helical configurations. Adenine, an essential nucleotide constituent of DNA, was examined with its long wavelength absorption maximum determining the energetic parameters for the calculations. The calculations were made for a virtual 5-turn helix where each turn of the helix emits a different frequency, generating a biological quantum series. The components of six adiabatic invariant equations were found to be embedded in Planck’s constant rendering them discrete, finite, non-random, non-statistical—Planck’s constant precludes probability. A mechanism for drug-induced hallucination is described that might provide insights as to the possible role of electromagnetic fields in consciousness. Sodium acceleration through a proposed nerve membrane helical channel generated electromagnetic emissions in the microwave region in confirmation of reported microwave emission for active nerves and may explain saltatory nerve conduction. Theoretical calculations for a helical DNA system gave a conduction resistance in agreement with a experimentally determined parameter.

Keywords

Virtual 5-turn helix: the adiabatic invariant parameters: angular momentum, magnetic moment, and tesla per orbital area display for each helical turn Components of adiabatic invariant parameters embedded in Planck’s constant Planck’s constant precludes probability-documents Schrodinger’s Insight! De Broglie’s wave-particle duality equation—\(\frac{h}{2\pi}= \hbar = \hbox{ Universal \ constant}\) Nerve light emission Drug hallucination Consciousness—preliminary reflections Star light decoded—unity of man with the Cosmos DNA conduction Proton tunneling Photon enzyme activation Josephson frequency 

Notes

Acknowledgments

I extend my deep appreciation to the memory of Dr. Albert Szent Gyorgyi, my post doctoral mentor, whose efforts, largely misunderstood, strove to replace the static depiction of matter with the dynamic aspects of fields as a more vibrant expression of life. I extend my sincere appreciation to my colleagues, Drs. W. H. Baricos, Paul Guth, and William Cohen, who read all or substantial portions of this work, and made many insightful suggestions concerning its thesis. I thank Dr. John Cochran of Simon Fraser University British Columbia, Canada, whose patient, incisive critiques and comments via e-mail, were immeasurably helpful; in developing my mathematics and physics. I honor the memory of my maternal grandfather, A. B. Newton, a school teacher for forty years, who taught me the joy of study and learning in my youth. Permissions: I thank Cornell University Press for permission to cite the excerpt on consciousness from Pauling’s text, “the Nature of the Chemical Bond,” 1960, p. 570. I thank Cambridge University Press for permission to cite excerpts from Schrodinger’s book, “What is Life? Mind and Matter,” 1967, 84–86.

References

  1. 1.
    Treimanl S (1999) The odd quantum. Princeton University Press, New Jersey, 123 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Newton I (1946) Newton’s principia. University California Press, Berkeley, pp 148–158Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ehrenfest P (1991) In: Pais A (ed) Niels Bohr’s times, in physics, philosophy, and polity. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 190 ppGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dirac PAM (1947) Quantum mechanics. Oxford, 136 ppGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rapp PE (1970) An atlas of cellular oscillators. J Exp Biol 81:281–306Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Skerra A, Brickmann J (1987) Structure and dynamics of one dimensional ionic solutions in biological membrane channels. Biophys J 51:969–976PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Skerra A, Brickmann J (1987) Simulation of voltage-driven hydrated cation transport through narrow membrane. Channels Biophys J 51:977–983Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buzsaki G, Draguhn A (2004) Neuronal oscillations in cortical networks review. Science 304:1926–1929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Chance B, Hollunger G (1957) Succinate-linked pyridine nucleotide reduction in mitochondria. Fed Proc 16:163Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chance B, Hollunger G (1960) Energy-linked reduction of mitochondrial pyridine nucleotide. Nature 185:666–672PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Pauling L, Wilson EB Jr (1935) Introduction to quantum mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 3Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Penrose R (2005) The road to reality. Knoff, New York, 471 ppGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feynman RP, Leighton RB, Sands M (1963) Lectures in Physics, vol 1, chap 11. Addison-Wesley, Reading, p 10Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Penrose R (1989) The emperor’s new mind. Oxford University Press, pp 230–231Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Pauling L, Corey RB (1951) The structure of hair, muscle, and related proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 37:261–271PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lorentz HA (1993) In: Edminister JA (ed) Electromagnetics, Schaum’s theory and problems, 2nd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, 155 ppGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Pauling L, Wilson EB Jr (1938) Introduction to quantum mechanics. McGraw-Hill, New York, p 30Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Tipler PA (1991) Physics for scientists and engineers, 3rd edn. Worth Publishers, New York, 604 ppGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kraus JD (1992) Electromagnetics, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill, New York, 310 ppGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jencks WP (1976) Handbook of biochemistry and molecular biology. In: Fasman G (ed) Physical and chemical data, 3rd edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, pp 296–304Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Guynn RW, Veech RL (1973) The equilibrium constants of the adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis and the adenosine triphosphate citrate lysate reactions. J Biol Chem 248:6966–6972PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fraser A, Frey AH (1968) Electromagnetic emission at micron wavelengths from active nerves. Biophys J 8:317–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Deutsch S, Deutsch A (1993) Understanding the nervous system. IEEE Press, New York. Biophys 24:149–156Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Turro NJ (1978) Modern molecular photochemistry. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., ReadingGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arber SL, Lin JC (1985) Radiation Environ Biophy 24:149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Jackson JD (1975) Classical electrodynamics, 2nd edn. Wiley, New York, pp 588–595Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hille B (1992) Ionic channels of excitable membranes. Sinauer Assoc., Sunderland, pp 291–314Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Guyer MF (1941) Animal biology, 3rd edn. Harper & Brothers, New York, p 6Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Biever C (2003) Electrifying claims dashed. New Scientist, Issue 2388Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lin J, Balabin IA, Beratan DB (2005) The nature aqueous tunneling pathways between electron-transfer proteins. Nature 310:1311–1313Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fink H-W, Schonenberger C (1999) Electrical conduction through DNA molecules. Nature 398:407–410PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Rattenmeyer M, Popp FA, Nagl W (1981) Evidence for photoemission from DNA in living systems. Naturwissenschaften 68:572–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Masgrau L, Roujeinkova A, Johannissen LO, Hothi P, Basran J, Ranaghan KE, Mulholland AJ, Sutchiffe MJ, Scrutton NS, Leys D (2006) Atomic description of an enzyme reaction dominated by proton tunneling. Science 312:237–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lewis ER, Johansen E, Holman TR (1999) Large competitive kinetic isotope effects in human 15-lipoxygenase catalysis measured by a novel HPLC method. J Am Chem Soc Commun 121:1395–1396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Molseyev N, Rucker J, Glickman MH (1997) Reduction of ferric iron could drive hydrogen tunneling in lipoxygenase catalysis: implications for enzymatic and chemical mechanisms. J Am Chem Soc 119:3853–3860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Biscar JP (1976) Photon enzyme activation. Bull Math Biol 38:29–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sommerfeld A (1923) Atomic structure and spectral lines, Methuen, translated from the third German editionGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Herzberg G (1944) Atomic spectra and atomic structureGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Semat RK (1948) Introduction to atomic physics. Dover Publications, Rinehart, pp 189–203Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rudaux L, De Vaucouleurs G (1959) Larousse encyclopedia of astronomy. Prometheus Press, New York, pp 481–482Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sears FW, Zemansky MW (1952) College physics. Addison-Weslwy, Reading, pp 216–220Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Baker GL, Blackburn JA (2006) The pendulim. Oxford University Press, New York, 217 ppGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Steele RH (2003) Electromagnetic field generation by ATP-induced reverse electron transfer. Arch Biochem Biophys 411:1–18PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Pauling L (1960) The nature of the chemical bond, 3rd edn. Cornell University Press, Iehaca, 570 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Treffert DA, Christensen DD (2005) Inside the mind of a savant. Sci Am 283:108–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Greenfield SA (1996) The human mind explained. Henry Holt and Company, New York, pp 58–59Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    DeZan P et al (1971) Fluorimetric characteristics of some narcotic and dangerous drugs. J Ass off Anal Chem 54:925–928Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Prozac (2006) Narconon research, Lake Eufaula, Okalahoma, USA. Side effects of commonly prescribed antidepressant drugsGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schrodinger E (1944) What is life. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp 72–91Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Dawkins R (2006) Skeptic 12. Altadena, CA, pp 52–53Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bohr N (1991) Niels Bohr’s times. Clarendon Press, Oxford, 190 ppGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Haw M (2007) Middle world, the restless heart of matter and life. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Heisenberg W (1927) Uber den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantenthoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik. Z Phys 43:172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Whitfield J (2006) In the beat of a heart: life, energy, and the unit of nature. Joseph Henry Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    McEvoy JP, Zarate O (1996) Introducing quantum theory. McPherson’s Printing, Victoria, p 84Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Born M (1935) Atomic physics, 5th edn. Hafner Publishing Co., 82 ppGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Heisenberg W (1996) In: McEvoy JP, Zarate O (eds) Introducing quantum theory. McPherson’s Printing Group, Victoria, 124 ppGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schrodinger E (1989) In: Schrodinger, life and thought. Cambridge University Press, 227 ppGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hansch TW et al (2002) In: Hydrogen the essential element. Harvard University Press, 150 ppGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Szent Gyorgyi A (1957) Bioenergetics. Academic Press, New York, pp 7–9Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Burr HS, Northrop FSC (1955) The electrodynamic theory of life. Q Rev Biol 10:322–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kanje M, Rusovan A, Sisken B, Lundborg G (1993) Pretreatment of rats with pulsed electromagnetic fields enhances regeneration of the sciatic nerve. Bioelectromagnetics 14:353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Pragels HR (1983) The cosmic code. Bantum Books, New York, 307 ppGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kraus JD (1992) Electromagnetics, 4th edn. McGraw-Hill Inc., New York, 113 ppGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryTulane University Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.MetairieUSA

Personalised recommendations