Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) attenuates increases in oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, and body weight in developing obese Zucker rats

  • Mohammad Asghar
  • Emmanuel Monjok
  • Ghislaine Kouamou
  • Sunny E. Ohia
  • Debasis Bagchi
  • Mustafa F. Lokhandwala
Article

Abstract

Super CitriMax (HCA-SX) is a novel calcium/potassium salt of (−)-hydroxycitric acid extracted from the dried fruit rind of the plant Garcinia cambogia, and commonly consumed as weight loss dietary supplement. In the present study, we investigated the effect of HCA-SX on inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance in developing obese Zucker rats, an animal model of type II diabetes associated with inflammation and oxidative stress. Male Zucker rats (5-week old) were supplemented with vehicle (control) and HCA-SX in drinking water for 7 weeks. Oxidative stress markers, including malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl (DNPH), and protein tyrosine nitration (tyr-NO2) were measured in the liver and kidney tissues using biochemical and immunoblotting techniques. Compared to controls, the levels of MDA, DNPH and tyr-NO2 were lower in the liver and kidney of HCA-SX-treated animals. Furthermore, the levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, markers of inflammation measured by ELISA, were lower in the plasma of HCA-SX-supplemented animals compared to controls, as were levels of fasting plasma insulin, glucose, and triglycerides. Interestingly, insulin resistance did not develop in HCA-SX-supplemented rats. Food-intake and body weight gain was also lower in rats supplemented with HCA-SX compared to their control counterparts. These results suggest that HCA-SX supplementation in obese Zucker rats reduces food-intake, body weight gain, and also attenuates the increases in inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance observed in untreated animals. Therefore, HCA-SX may be used as an intervention to overcome obesity-related complications, including inflammation, oxidative stress, and insulin resistance.

Keywords

Metabolic syndrome Syndrome X Hypertension HOMA Blood pressure Garcinia cambogia 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Asghar
    • 1
  • Emmanuel Monjok
    • 1
  • Ghislaine Kouamou
    • 1
  • Sunny E. Ohia
    • 1
  • Debasis Bagchi
    • 2
    • 3
  • Mustafa F. Lokhandwala
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of PharmacyUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacy SciencesCreighton University Medical CenterOmahaUSA
  3. 3.InterHealth Nutraceuticals, Inc.BeniciaUSA

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