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Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry

, Volume 288, Issue 1–2, pp 171–178 | Cite as

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B Initiates Protein Kinase C Translocation and Eicosanoid Metabolism While Inhibiting Thrombin-Induced Aggregation in Human Platelets

  • Uyen Tran
  • Thomas Boyle
  • Jeffrey W. Shupp
  • Rasha Hammamieh
  • Marti Jett
Article

Abstract

Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) B, a heat-stable toxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, has been implicated in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of several critical illnesses. It has been hypothesized that enterotoxins may interact with blood products such as platelets, in addition to T-lymphocytes and renal proximal tubule cells. The aim of this present study was to elucidate whether SEB directly alters human platelet function. Human platelet rich plasma (PRP) was pre-incubated with SEA, SEB, SEC or TSST-1, (at various concentrations and incubation times). After incubation, PRP was exposed to thrombin and aggregation was assessed. Incubation with all toxins tested resulted in decreased aggregation, specifically; exposure to 10μ g/ml of SEB for 30 min caused a 20% decrease and a 49% decrease at 90 min. A similar reduction in aggregation was seen in samples incubated with phorbol myristate acetate, a known stimulator of protein kinase C (PKC). Further, platelets exposed to SEB exhibited an increased plasma membrane PKC activity. Sphingosine, an inhibitor of PKC proved to block the SEB-induced reduction in aggregation. SEB effects on platelet metabolism were investigated using high performance liquid chromatography showing up to a 2-fold increase of active metabolites lipoxin A4 and 12-HETE, as compared to control. These data indicate that SEB is able to induce platelet dysfunction, and these effects may be mediated through activation of PKC.

Keywords

aggregation platelets SEB shock superantigen 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uyen Tran
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thomas Boyle
    • 1
    • 3
  • Jeffrey W. Shupp
    • 1
  • Rasha Hammamieh
    • 1
  • Marti Jett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Molecular PathologyWalter Reed Army Institute of ResearchSilver SpringUSA
  2. 2.Vanderbilt University Medical CenterNashvilleUSA
  3. 3.FDA/CFSANCollege ParkUSA

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