Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Some antecedents and outcomes of brand love


Survey research is employed to test hypotheses involving brand love, a new marketing construct that assesses satisfied consumers’ passionate emotional attachment to particular brands. Findings suggest that satisfied consumers’ love is greater for brands in product categories perceived as more hedonic (as compared with utilitarian) and for brands that offer more in terms of symbolic benefits. Brand love, in turn, is linked to higher levels of brand loyalty and positive word-of-mouth. Findings also suggest that satisfied consumers tend to be less loyal to brands in more hedonic product categories and to engage in more positive word-of-mouth about self-expressive brands.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.


  1. Aron, A., & Aron, E.N. (1985). Love and the Expansion of Self: Understanding Attraction and Satisfaction. Washington: Hemisphere Publishing.

  2. Aron, A., Paris, M., & Aron, E.N. (1995). Falling in love: prospective Studies of Self-Concept Change. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 1102–1112.

  3. Ahuvia, A.C. (1993). I love itČ Toward a Unifying Theory of Love across Diverse Love Objects. doctoral dissertation, Field of Marketing, Northwestern University.

  4. Ahuvia, A.C. (2005a). Beyond the extended self: loved Objects and Consumers Identity Narratives. Journal of Consumer Research, 32, 171–184.

  5. Ahuvia, A.C. (2005b). The Love Prototype Revisited: A Qualitative Exploration of Contemporary Folk Psychology. Working paper.

  6. Averill, J.R. (1985). The Social Construction of Emotion: with Special Reference to Love. In: Gergen K.J. & Davis, K.E. (eds.), The Social Construction of the Person. New York: Springer-Verlag, pp. 89–109.

  7. Bloch, P.H. (1986). Product enthusiasm: Many Questions, A Few Answers. In: Lutz R.J. (ed.), Advances in Consumer Research, 13. Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, pp. 539–543.

  8. Bloch, P.H., & Richins, M. (1983). A Theoretical Model for the Study of Product Importance Perceptions. Journal of Marketing, 47, 69–81.

  9. Celsi, R. L., & Olson, J.C. (1988). The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes. Journal of Consumer Research, 15, 210–224.

  10. Chandon, P., Wansink, B., & Laurent, G. (2000). A Benefit Congruency Framework of Sales Promotion Effectiveness. Journal of Marketing, 64, 65–81.

  11. Chaudhuri, A., & Holbrook, M.B. (2001). The Chain of Effects from Brand Trust and Brand Affect to Brand Performance: the Role of Brand Loyalty. Journal of Marketing, 65, 81–93.

  12. Cohen, J.B., & Areni C.S. (1991). Affect and Consumer Behavior. In: Robertson, T.S. and Kassarjian, H.H. (eds.), Handbook of Consumer Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, pp. 188–240.

  13. Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Rochberg-Halton, E. (1981). The Meaning of Things: Domestic Symbols and the Self. New York: Cambridge University Press.

  14. Dodd, T.H., Pinkleton, B.E & Gustafson W.A. (1996). External Information Sources of Product Enthusiasts: differences between Variety Seekers, Variety Neutrals and Variety Avoiders. Psychology & Marketing, 13, 291–305.

  15. Durgee, J.F. (1999). Deep soulful satisfaction. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 12, 53–63.

  16. Fehr, B. (1993). How Do I Love Thee? Let Me Consult My Prototype. In: Duck, S. (ed.), Individuals in Relationships, 1, Newbury Park, CA: SAGE, pp. 87–120.

  17. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 24, 343–373.

  18. Fournier, S., & Mick, D.G. (1999). Rediscovering satisfaction. Journal of Marketing, 63, 5–23.

  19. Harrison-Walker, L.J. (2001). The Measurement of Word-of-Mouth Communication and an Investigation of Service Quality and Customer Commitment as Potential Antecedents. Journal of Service Research, 4, 60–75.

  20. Hatfield, E. (1988). Passionate and Compassionate Love. In: Sternberg, R.J. and Barnes, M.L. (eds.), The Psychology of Love. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, pp. 191–217.

  21. Hirschman, E.C., & Morris, B.H. (1982). Hedonic consumption: emerging Concepts, Methods and Propositions. Journal of Marketing, 46, 92–101.

  22. Holt, D.B. (1997). Post-structuralist lifestyle analysis: conceptualizing the Social Patterning of Consumption in Postmodernity. Journal of Consumer Research, 23, 326–350.

  23. Holt, D.B. (1998). Does Cultural Capital Structure American Consumption?. Journal of Consumer Research, 25, 1–25.

  24. Kleine, S.S., Kleine, R.E. III, & Allen, C.T. (1995). How Is a Possession ‘Me’ or ‘Not Me’? Characterizing Types and an Antecedent of Material Possession Attachment. Journal of Consumer Research, 22, 327–343.

  25. Kumar, A., Olshavsky, R.W., & King, M.F. (2001). Exploring Alternative Antecedents of Customer Delight. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 14, 14–26.

  26. McAlexander, J.H., Schouten, J.W., & Koenig, H.F. (2002). Building brand community. Journal of Marketing, 66, 38–54.

  27. Oliver, R.L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty? Journal of Marketing, 63 (Special Issue), 33–44.

  28. Oliver, R.L., Rust, R.T., & Varki, S. (1997). Customer delight: foundations, Findings, and Managerial Insight. Journal of Retailing, 73, 311–36.

  29. Regan, P.C., Kocan, E.R., & Whitlock, T. (1998). Ain’t love grandČ A prototype analysis of the concept of romantic love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 15, 411–420.

  30. Reichheld, F.F. (2003). The One Number You Need to Grow. Harvard Business Review, 81, 46–54.

  31. Roberts, K. (2004). Lovemarks: The Future Beyond Brands. New York: Power House Books.

  32. Schultz, S.E., Kleube, R.E. III, & Kernan, J.B. (1989). These Are a Few of My Favorite Things: toward an Explication of Attachment as a Consumer Behavior Construct. In: Srull, T. (eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, vol. 16 pp. 359–366.

  33. Seligman, C., Fazio, R.H., & Zanna, M.P. (1980). Effects of Salience of Extrinsic Rewards on Liking and Loving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 453–460.

  34. Shimp, T.A., & Madden, T.J. (1988). Consumer-object relations: a Conceptual Framework Based Analogously on Sternberg’s Triangular Theory of Love. In: Houston M.J. (ed.), Advances in consumer research, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, vol. 15 pp. 163–168.

  35. Sternberg, R.J. (1987). Liking versus loving: a Comparative Evaluation of Theories. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 331–345.

  36. Sternberg, R.J. (1986). A Triangular Theory of Love. Psychological Review, 93, 119–135.

  37. Swan, J.E., & Trawick, I.F. Jr. (1999). Delight on the nile: an Ethnography of Experiences that Produce Delight. Journal of Consumer Satisfaction, Dissatisfaction and Complaining Behavior, 12, 64–70.

  38. Thomson, M., Maclnnis, D.J., & Park, C.W. (2005). The ties that bind: measuring the Strength of Consumers Emotional Attachment to Brands. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15, 77–91.

  39. Wallendorf, M., & Arnould, E. (1988). My favorite things: A Cross-Cultural Inquiry into Object Attachment, Possessiveness, and Social Linkage. Journal of Consumer Research, 14, 531–547.

  40. Westbrook, R. A. (1987). Product/consumption-based Affective Responses and Postpurchase Processes. Journal of Marketing Research, 24, 258–270.

  41. Whang, Yn-Oh, Allen, J., Sahoury, N., & Zhang, H. (2004). Falling in Love with a Product: the Structure of a Romantic Consumer-Product Relationship. In: Kahn, B.E. and Luce, M.F. (eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, vol. 31 pp. 320–327.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Barbara A. Carroll.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Carroll, B.A., Ahuvia, A.C. Some antecedents and outcomes of brand love. Market Lett 17, 79–89 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-006-4219-2

Download citation


  • Satisfaction
  • Delight
  • Love
  • Loyalty
  • Word-of-mouth
  • Consumer-brand relationships