Seismic depth imaging of sequence boundaries beneath the New Jersey shelf
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Numerical modelling of fluid flow and transport processes relies on a well-constrained geological model, which is usually provided by seismic reflection surveys. In the New Jersey shelf area a large number of 2D seismic profiles provide an extensive database for constructing a reliable geological model. However, for the purpose of modelling groundwater flow, the seismic data need to be depth-converted which is usually accomplished using complementary data from borehole logs. Due to the limited availability of such data in the New Jersey shelf, we propose a two-stage processing strategy with particular emphasis on reflection tomography and pre-stack depth imaging. We apply this workflow to a seismic section crossing the entire New Jersey shelf. Due to the tomography-based velocity modelling, the processing flow does not depend on the availability of borehole logging data. Nonetheless, we validate our results by comparing the migrated depths of selected geological horizons to borehole core data from the IODP expedition 313 drill sites, located at three positions along our seismic line. The comparison yields that in the top 450 m of the migrated section, most of the selected reflectors were positioned with an accuracy close to the seismic resolution limit (≈ 4 m) for that data. For deeper layers the accuracy still remains within one seismic wavelength for the majority of the tested horizons. These results demonstrate that the processed seismic data provide a reliable basis for constructing a hydrogeological model. Furthermore, the proposed workflow can be applied to other seismic profiles in the New Jersey shelf, which will lead to an even better constrained model.
KeywordsSeismic imaging Velocity modelling Reflection tomography Groundwater modelling
This study has been funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) within the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) [BU1364/15-1]. We appreciate the constructive comments by two anonymous reviewers and the editor. We thank the Marine Geoscience Data System for providing the seismic data used in this work. We also gratefully acknowledge the Halliburton Software Grant for the Technical University Bergakademie Freiberg, which enabled data processing with their software package SeisSpace® ProMAX®.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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