Advertisement

Marine Geophysical Research

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 127–136 | Cite as

Continuous resistivity profiling survey in Mersin Harbour, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea

  • Mahmut Okyar
  • Sedat Yılmaz
  • Devrim Tezcan
  • Hakan Çavaş
Original Research Paper

Abstract

No detailed information has previously been available on the geological and geophysical characteristics of the sea floor and the underlying strata of Mersin Harbour, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea (Turkey). Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) and borehole data from Mersin Harbour were used to interpret geoelectric stratigraphy of Neogene-Quaternary sediments in the area. This represents one of few such detailed case studies that have applied these valuable CRP techniques for the purpose of marine stratigraphic imaging. It was found that the Neogene-Quaternary sedimentary succession in the area consists of three geoelectric units (GU1, GU2, and GU3 from base to top). The lowest unit, GU1, has a resistivity value of greater than 20.0 ohm-m and consists of Miocene aged limestone and marl. The middle unit, GU2, is characterized by resistivity values ranging from 3.0 to 20.0 ohm-m. Its thickness is greater than 90 m, with the upper section being composed of stiff clay sequences which are Plio-Pleistocene in age. The uppermost unit, GU3, has resistivity values varying from 1.0 to 3.0 ohm-m. This unit displays a maximum thickness of 15 m, and is composed of Holocene muds together with gravel, sand, silt and clay (sometimes incorporating shells) materials of the Plio-Pleistocene age and their various mixtures, silty/clay limestone, and conglomerate sandstone. Comparisons of the geoelectric units with the depositional sequences interpreted from the available seismic data outwith, but close to, Mersin Harbour reveal that the geoelectric unit GU3 corresponds to the depositional sequences C (mainly Holocene) and B (mainly Plio-Pleistocene). The geoelectric unit GU2 partly correlates with the depositional sequence B which appears to be Plio-Pleistocene in age. The geoelectric unit GU1, which has not been encountered in previous seismic surveys, is a new discovery within Mersin Harbour. Limited correlation between the seismic and resistivity structures in the study area is attributed to differences in the acoustic impedance and resistivity contrasts of sub-bottom layers, as well as the penetration versus resolution performance of the systems.

Keywords

Marine geophysics Resistivity profiling Sea floor Mersin Harbour Turkey Mediterranean sea 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Editor-in-Chief Dr. Amy Draut, reviewer Dr. Tim Eaton and one anonymous reviewer for their constructive criticism, which have contributed to important improvements in this paper.

References

  1. Aksu AE, Uluğ A, Piper DJW, Konuk YT, Turgut S (1992) Quaternary sedimentary history of Adana, Cilicia, and Iskenderun Basins: Northeastern Mediterranean sea. Mar Geol 104:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Belaval M, Lane JW, Lesmes DP Jr, Kineke GC (2003) Continuous-resistivity profiling for coastal ground water investigations: three case studies. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems (SAGEEP), San Antonio, Texas, 6–10 April 2003, CD-ROM, pp 14Google Scholar
  3. Bodur MN, Ergin M (1989) High resolution seismic reflection studies of the quaternary coastal deposits in the Bay of Mersin (Turkey), NE-Mediterranean. Presented at XIV general assembly of European geophysical society, Barcelona, 13–17 March 1989. Annales Geophysicae, p 15Google Scholar
  4. Bodur MN, Ergin M (1992) Holocene sedimentation patterns and bedforms in the wave-current-dominated nearshore waters of eastern Mersin Bay (eastern Mediterranean). Mar Geol 108:73–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bratton JF, Crusius J, Cross V, Koopmans D (2005) Delineation of nearshore freshwater-saltwater relationships in submarine ground water using continuous resistivity profiling and piezometer transects in the Neuse River Estuary. In: Abstracts with programs of the geological society of America Salt lake city annual meeting, Salt Lake City, Utah, 16–19 October 2005, p 471Google Scholar
  6. Collins MB, Banner FT (1979) Secchi disc depths; suspensions and circulation, North-Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Geol 31:M39–M46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Day-Lewis FD, White EA, Belaval M, Johnson CD, Lane JW Jr (2006) Continuous resistivity profiling to delineate submarine groundwater discharge: examples and limitations. Lead Edge 25:724–728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DSİ (Devlet Su İşleri) (1978) Mersin-Berdan ve Efrenk Ovaları Hidrojeolojik Etüd Raporu. Devlet Su İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü, Ankara, Turkey, pp 60 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  9. Ediger V, Evans G, Ergin M (1997) Recent surficial shelf sediments of the Cilician Basin (Turkey), Northeastern Mediterranean. Cont Shelf Res 17:1659–1677CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ergin M (1996) Subaerially exposed late-quaternary basinal shelf of the inner Mersin Bay, Eastern Mediterranean: paleoenvironmental evidence. Geo Mar Lett 16:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Ergin M, Timur K, Okyar M, Bodur MN, Ediger V (1989) Marine geological and geophysical investigations related to construction of a landing place. Technical report, institute of marine sciences. Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Mersin, p 43Google Scholar
  12. Ergin M, Okyar M, Timur K (1992) Seismic stratigraphy and Late Quaternary sediments in inner and midshelf areas of eastern Mersin Bay, Northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Geol 104:73–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Evans G (1971) The recent sedimentation of Turkey and the adjacent Mediterranean and Black Seas: a review. In: Campbell AS (ed) Geology and history of Turkey. Petroleum Exploration Society of Libya, Tripoli, pp 385–406Google Scholar
  14. Heaney JM, Nyquist JE, Toran LE (2007) Marine resistivity as a tool for characterizing zones of seepage at Lake Lacawac, Pa. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems, Denver, Colorado, 1–5 April 2007, SAGEEP 20, pp 1339–1349Google Scholar
  15. IMS (Institute of Marine Sciences) (1986a) Geological and geophysical oceanography in Mersin coastal waters. Technical report, no: R60/86-02/E, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Mersin, pp 44Google Scholar
  16. IMS (Institute of Marine Sciences) (1986b) Mersin Kanalizasyon Deniz Deşarjı Oşinografi Çalışmaları Fiziksel-Kimyasal Bulgu Sonuç Raporu. Technical Report, No: R60/86-02/T, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University Erdemli, Mersin, pp 69 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  17. Johnson CD, White EA (2007) Marine geophysical investigation of selected sites in Bridgeport Harbor, Connecticut, 2006. U.S. Geological survey, scientific investigations report 2007-5119. Available on line: http://pubs.usgs.gov/sir/2007/5119/pdf/sir2007-5119.pdf
  18. JS (2008) Mersin Limanı Denizde ve Karada Jeoteknik ve Jeofizik Etüd Raporu, PSA-AKFEN Mersin Uluslararası Limanı. Geophysical Service & Advanced Technologies Co, Ankara, Turkey, pp 96 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  19. Kwon HS, Kim JH, Ahn HY, Yoon JS, Kim KS, Jung CK, Lee SB, Uchida T (2005) Delineation of a fault zone beneath a riverbed by an electrical resistivity survey using a floating streamer cable. Explor Geophys 36:50–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lacombe H, Tchernia P (1972) Caracteres hydrologiques et circulation des eaux en Mediterranee. In: Stanley DJ (ed) The Mediterranean sea: a natural sedimentation laboratory. Dowden Hutchinson and Ross, Inc. Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania, pp 25–36Google Scholar
  21. Manheim FT, Krantz DE, Snyder DD, Sturgis B (2002) Streamer resistivity surveys in Delmarva coastal bays. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems, Las Vegas, Nevada, 10–14 February 2002, SAGEEP 15, GSL 5Google Scholar
  22. Mansoor N, Slater L (2007) Aquatic electrical resistivity imaging of shallow-water wetlands. Geophys 72:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Meunier J, Swarzenski P (2003) A high resolution subsurface resistivity investigation of Tampa Bay. In: Treat SF (ed) Proceedings of the Tampa Bay area scientific information symposium, BASIS4, St. Petersburg, Florida, 27–30 October 2003, p 295Google Scholar
  24. Mitchell N, Nyquist JE, Toran L, Rosenberry DO, Mikochik JS (2008). Electrical resistivity as a tool for identifying geologic heterogeneities which control seepage at Mirror Lake, Nh. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 6–10 April 2008, SAGEEP 21, pp 749–759Google Scholar
  25. MTA (Maden Tetkik ve Arama Enstitüsü) (2002) 1:500,000 Scale Geological Maps of Turkey, No: 15 (Adana Plate). General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  26. Okyar M (1991) The late-quaternary transgression and its associated submarine stratigraphy of Mersin Bay between the Göksu and the Seyhan Deltas: a geophysical approach. Ph.D. thesis, Institute of Marine Sciences, Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Mersin, pp 156Google Scholar
  27. Okyar M, Ediger V, Timur K, Ergin M, Yucesoy F (1992) Oceanographic studies related to the marine sewerage outfall for Mersin Bay. First progress report, section: I Geological and geophysical investigations. Institute of marine sciences. Middle East Technical University, Erdemli, Mersin, p 38Google Scholar
  28. Okyar M, Ergin M, Evans G (2005) Seismic stratigraphy of late quaternary sediments of western Mersin Bay shelf, (NE Mediterranean Sea). Mar Geol 220:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Özhan G (1988) The North-Eastern Mediterranean Sea, in the light of marine seismic reflection data. Geological Bulletin of Turkey 31:51–62 (in Turkish with English Abstract)Google Scholar
  30. Passaro S (2010) Marine electrical resistivity tomography for shipwreck detection in very shallow water: a case study from Agropoli (Salerno, southern Italy). J Archaeol Sci 37:1989–1998CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schmidt GC (1961) Stratigraphic nomenclature for the Adana region petroleum district VII. Pet Admin Bull 6:47–63Google Scholar
  32. Shaw HF, Bush PR (1978) The minerology and geochemistry of the recent surface sediments of the Cilicia Basin, northeast Mediterranean. Mar Geol 27:115–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Snyder D, Wightman E (2002) Applications of continuous resistivity profiling to aquifer characterization. In: Proceedings of the symposium on the application of geophysics to engineering and environmental problems, Las Vegas, Nevada, 10–14 February, SAGEEP 15, GSL 10Google Scholar
  34. Stanley DJ (1977) Post Miocene depositional patterns and structural displacement in the Mediterranean. In: Nairn AEM, Kanes WH, Stehli FG (eds) The ocean basin and margins the eastern Mediterranean, vol 4A. Plenum Press, New York, pp 77–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Swarzenski PW, Izbicki JA (2009) Coastal groundwater dynamics off Santa Barbara, California: combining geochemical tracers, electromagnetic seep meters, and electrical resistivity. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 83:77–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. TEKAR (Teknik Araştırma, Co) (1988) Geotechnical report of the construction of landing place at Mersin Harbour for the Akdeniz Fertilizer Company. Teknik Araştırma Şirketi Ankara, Turkey, pp 11 + appendices (unpublished)Google Scholar
  37. Ternek Z (1962) 1:500,000 Scale geological maps of Turkey, Adana sheet. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration, Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  38. Ünlüata Ü, Latif MA, Bengü F, Akay H (1978) Towards an understanding of shelf dynamics along the southern coast of Turkey. Presented at IV Journeees Etudes Pollutions en Mediterranee, Antalya, 24–27 November 1978. Commission Internationale Pour l’Exploration Scientifique de la mer Méditerranée, Monte Carlo, Monaco, pp 535–542Google Scholar
  39. Woodside JM (1977) Tectonic elements and crust of the eastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Geophys Res 3:317–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mahmut Okyar
    • 1
  • Sedat Yılmaz
    • 1
  • Devrim Tezcan
    • 2
  • Hakan Çavaş
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Geophysics, Engineering FacultySüleyman Demirel UniversityIspartaTurkey
  2. 2.Institute of Marine SciencesMiddle East Technical UniversityMersinTurkey
  3. 3.JS Geophysical Service and Advanced Technologies CompanyAnkaraTurkey

Personalised recommendations