Advertisement

Marine Geophysical Research

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 289–305 | Cite as

Multiple attenuation in crustal-scale imaging: examples from the TAIGER marine reflection data set

  • Ryan Lester
  • Kirk McIntosh
Original Research Paper

Abstract

During summer of 2009, multi-channel marine seismic reflection data and wide-angle refraction data were acquired as part of the joint NSF and Taiwanese-funded TAIGER program with the goal of understanding the dynamics of arc-continent collision in Taiwan. One of the principle difficulties of crustal-scale imaging with marine reflection data such as these is the prevalent multiple contamination that obscures many of the deep crustal targets. Without effective treatment of multiples, many of the objectives of the TAIGER active source program may not be achieved. We present three profiles, one from each acquisition leg, that demonstrate the effectiveness of 2D surface-related multiple elimination (SRME) and radon filtering in attenuating much of this unwanted energy in broad ranges of water depths, seafloor topographies and lithologies. Two profiles from south of Taiwan image 3–4 km of sedimentary strata overlying moderately extended continental crust along the Eurasia continental shelf and a 5–6 km thick sedimentary section overlying thin crust consisting of faulted blocks and volcanic bodies along the continental slope. Our multiple attenuation efforts also reveal a seaward-dipping normal fault that penetrates into the upper mantle and separates thick crust of the continental shelf from thin crust of the continental slope. A profile from east of Taiwan reveals thin ocean crust of the Philippine Sea plate subducting beneath the Ryukyu trench that may be traced beneath the accretionary prism and Ryukyu forearc. These profiles demonstrate the success of our imaging strategy in the range of imaging environments spanned by the TAIGER marine reflection seismic data.

Keywords

Continental margin Subduction zone Crustal structure Marine geophysics Taiwan 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The results of this paper would not be possible without the superior facilities of the R/V Marcus G. Langseth, and the hard work of the captain, crew and science staff. We would like to thank the many Taiwanese researchers and students involved in the TAIGER project, including (but not limited to), Dr. Chao-Shing Lee, Dr. Shu-Kun Hsu, Dr. T.K. Wang, and Dr. Char-Shine Liu, who also provided many useful suggestions in the preparation of this manuscript. We would also like to thank the three anonymous reviewers for their insightful feedback. Data were processed with Paradigm’s Focus and Geodepth software. Figures were made using Focus and GMT. This research was made possible through the NSF Continental Dynamics program (Grant EAR-0408609) and support from Taiwan’s National Science Council, Central Geologic Survey, and Ministry of Interior. University of Texas Institute for Geophysics contribution #2462.

References

  1. Berndt C, Moore GF (1999) Dependence of multiple-attenuation techniques on the geologic setting: a case study from offshore Taiwan. Lead Edge 18:74–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Briais A, Patriat P, Tapponnier P (1993) Updated Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies and Seafloor Spreading Stages in the South China Sea: Implications for the Tertiary Tectonics of Southeast Asia. J Geophys Res 98(B4):6299–6328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Byrne TB, Liu C-S (2002) Preface: Introduction to the geology and geophysics of Taiwan. In: Byrne TB, Liu C-S (eds) Geology and geophysics of an Arc-continent collision, Taiwan, vol 358. The geological society of America, pp i–ivGoogle Scholar
  4. Chamot-Rooke N, Le Pichon X (1999) GPS determined eastward Sundaland motion with respect to Eurasia, confirmed by earthquakes slip vectors at Sunda and Philippine trenches. Earth Planet Sci Lett 173:439–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chi W-C, Reed DL, Moore G, Nguyen T, Liu C-S, Lundberg N (2003) Tectonic wedging along the rear of the offshore Taiwan accretionary prism. Tectonophysics 374:199–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clift PD, Lin J, Party OLS (2001) Patterns of extension and magmatism along the continent-ocean boundary. Geological Society of London Special Publication, South China MarginGoogle Scholar
  7. Davis D, Suppe J, Dahlen FA (1983) Mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts and accretionary wedges. J Geophys Res 88(B2):1153–1172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Font Y, Liu C-S, Schnurle P, Lallemand S (2000) Constraints on backstop geometry of the southwest Ryukyu subduction based on reflection seismic data. Tectonophysics 333:135–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hall R (2002) Cenozoic geological and plate tectonic evolution of SE Asia and the SW Pacific: computer-based reconstructions, model and animations. J Asian Earth Sci 20:353–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hayes DE, Nissen SS, Buhl P, Diebold J, Bochu Y, Weijun Z, Yongqin C (1995) Throughgoing crustal faults along the northern margin of the South China Sea and their role in crustal extension. J Geophys Res 100(11):22435–22446Google Scholar
  11. Hsu S-K, Yeh Y-C, Doo W-B, Tsai C-H (2003) New bathymetry and magnetic lineations identifications in the northernmost South China Sea and their tectonic implications. Mar Geophys Res 25:29–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Huang C-Y, Wu W-Y, Chang C-P, Tsao S, Yuan PB, Lin C-W, Kuan-Yuan X (1997) Tectonic evolution of accretionary prism in the arc-continent collision terrane of Taiwan. Tectonophysics 281:31–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Huang C-Y, Yuan PB, Lin C-W, Wang TK, Chang C-P (2000) Geodynamic processes of Taiwan arc-continent collision and comparison with analogs in Timor, Papua New Guinea, Urals and Corsica. Tectonophysics 325:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kao H, Shen Sern-su J, Ma K-F (1998) Transition from oblique subduction to collision: Earthquakes in the southernmost Ryukyu arc-Taiwan region. J Geophys Res 103(B4):7211–7229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Klingelhoefer F, Berthet T, Lallemand S, Schnurle P, Lee C-S, Liu C-S, McIntosh K, Theunissen T (In Press) Velocity structure of the southern Ryukyu margin east of Taiwan: results from the ACTS wide-angle seismic experiment. TectonophysicsGoogle Scholar
  16. Lee T-Y, Lawver LA (1993) Cenozoic plate reconstruction of the South China Sea region. Tectonophysics 235:149–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee Y-H, Chen C–C, Liu T-K, Ho H-C, Lu H-Y, Lo W (2006) Mountain building mechanisms in the Southern Central Range of the Taiwan Orogenic Belt: from accretionary wedge deformation to arc-continental collision. Earth Planet Sci Lett 252:413–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lin AT, Watts AB (2002) Origin of the West Taiwan basin by orogenic loading and flexure of a rifted continental margin. J Geophys Res 107 (B9), 2185Google Scholar
  19. Lin AT, Watts AB, Hesselbo SP (2003) Cenozoic stratigraphy and subsidence history of the South China Sea margin in the Taiwan region. Basin Res 15:453–478CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Liu C-S, Huang IL, Teng LS (1997) Structural features off southwestern Taiwan. Mar Geol 137:305–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Liu T-K, Hsieh S, Chen Y-G, Chen W-S (2001) Thermo-kinematic evolution of the Taiwan oblique-collision mountain belt as revealed by zircon fission track dating. Earth Planet Sci Lett 186:45–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Louden KE (1980) The crustal and lithospheric thicknesses of the Philippine Sea as compared to the Pacific. Earth Planet Sci Lett 50:275–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lundberg N, Reed DL, Liu C-S, Jay Lieske J (1997) Forearc-basin closure and arc accretion in the submarine suture zone south of Taiwan. Tectonophysics 274:5–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McIntosh K, Nakamura Y, Wang T-K, Shih R-C, Chen A, Liu C-S (2005) Crustal-scale seismic profiles across Taiwan and western Philippine Sea. Tectonophysics 401:23–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Murauchi S, Den N, Asano S, Hotta H, Yoshii T, Asanuma T, Hagiwara K, Ichikawa K, Sato T, Ludwig WJ, Ewing JI, Edgar NT, Houtz RE (1968) Crustal structure of the Philippine Sea. J Geophys Res 73(10):3143–3171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nissen SS, Hayes DE, Bochu Y, Weijun Z, Yongqin C, Xiaupin N (1995a) Gravity, heat flow, and seismic constraints on the processes of crustal extension: Northern margin of the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(11):22447–22483Google Scholar
  27. Nissen SS, Hayes DE, Buhl P, Diebold J, Bochu Y, Weijun Z, Yongqin C (1995b) Deep penetration seismic soundings across the northern margin of the South China Sea. Journal of Geophysical Research 100(11):22407–22433Google Scholar
  28. Schoenberger M (1996) Optimum weighted staack for multiple suppresion. Geophysics 61(3):891–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Seno T, Stein S, Gripp AE (1993) A model for the motion of the Philippine Sea plate consistent with NUVEL-1 and geological data. J Geophys Res 98(B10):17941–17948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shinjo R (1999) Geochemistry of high Mg andesites and the tectonic evolution of the Okinawa Trough-Ryukyu arc system. Chem Geol 157:69–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suppe J (1984) Kinematics of arc-continent collision, flipping of subduction, and back-arc spreading near Taiwan. Mem Geol Soc China 6:21–33Google Scholar
  32. Taylor B, Hayes D (1983) Origin and history of the south China Sea Basin. In: The tectonic and geologic evolution of Southeast Asian Seas and Islands, Part 2, vol AGU geophysical monogram 27. pp 23–56Google Scholar
  33. Teng LS (1996) Extensional collapse of the northern Taiwan mountain belt. Geology 24(10):949–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Verschuur DJ, Berkhoust AJ, Wapenaar CPA (1992) Adaptive surface-related multiple elimination. Geophysics 57(9):1166–1177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wang W-H (2001) Lithospheric flexure under a critically tapered mountain belt: a new technique to study the evolution of the Tertiary Taiwan orogeny. Earth Planet Sci Lett 192:571–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wang K-L, Chung S-L, Chen C-H, Shinjo R, Yang TF, Chen C-H (1999) Post-collisional magmatism around northern Taiwan and its relation with opening of the Okinawa Trough. Tectonophysics 308:363–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wang TK, Chen M-K, Lee C-S, Xia K (2006) Seismic imaging of the transitional crust across the northeastern margin of the South China Sea. Tectonophysics 412:237–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wu FT, Rau R-J, Salzberg D (1997) Taiwan orogeny: thin-skinned or lithospheric collision? Tectonophysics 274:191–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Yan P, Di Z, Zhaoshu L (2001) A crustal structure profile across the northern continental margin of the South China Sea. Tectonophysics 338:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yan P, Deng H, Liu H, Zhang Z, Jiang Y (2006) The temporal and spatial distribution of volcanism in the South China Sea region. J Asian Earth Sci 27:647–659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yeh Y-C, Hsu S-K (2004) Crustal structures of the northernmost South China Sea: Seismic reflection and gravity modeling. Mar Geophys Res 25:45–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yeh Y-C, Sibuet J-C, Hsu S-K, Liu C-S (2010) Tectonic evolution of the Northeastern South China Sea from seismic interpretation. J Geophys Res 115Google Scholar
  43. Yilmaz O (2001) Seismic data analysis, 2nd edn. Society of Exploration Geophysics, TulsaCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yu S-B, Chen H-Y, Kuo L-C (1997) Velocity field of GPS stations in the Taiwan area. Tectonophysics 274:41–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for GeophysicsUniversity of TexasAustinUSA

Personalised recommendations