Advertisement

Marine Geophysical Research

, Volume 32, Issue 1–2, pp 49–69 | Cite as

A review of undulated sediment features on Mediterranean prodeltas: distinguishing sediment transport structures from sediment deformation

  • Roger Urgeles
  • Antonio Cattaneo
  • Pere Puig
  • Camino Liquete
  • Ben De Mol
  • David Amblàs
  • Nabil Sultan
  • Fabio Trincardi
Original Research Paper

Abstract

Most Mediterranean prodeltas show undulated sediment features on the foresets of their Holocene wedges. These features have been described all along the Mediterranean for the last 30 years and interpreted as either soft sediment deformation and incipient landsliding, and more recently, as sediment transport structures. We perform a review and detailed analysis of these undulated sediment features using ultrahigh-resolution seismic and bathymetric data as well as geotechnical information and hydrodynamic time series and hydrographic transects. In this study we show that the characteristics of the sediment undulations (configuration of the reflections down section and between adjacent undulations and overall morphologic characteristics) are incompatible with a genesis by sediment deformation alone and do not show evidence of sediment deformation in most cases. Various processes in the benthic boundary layer can be invoked to explain the variety of features observed in the numerous areas displaying sediment undulations.

Keywords

Undulated sediments Prodeltas Slope failure Sediment waves Hyperpycnal flows Internal waves 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This manuscript is a contribution to project E-MARSHAL (IGCP-585) funded by IUGS and UNESCO. The data on the Iberian prodeltas was acquired in the frame of the Spanish project PRODELTA (REN2002-02323). Data for some areas of the continental shelf (Fluvià-Muga and Ter prodeltas) were acquired by “Secretaría General del Mar” of the Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino” and provided free of charge. For the Algerian data we thank captain and crew of R/V L’Atalante (campagne PRISME 2007) and funding from French ANR projects ISIS and DANACOR. Borehole geotechnical data was acquired in the frame EC funded project PROMESS-1 (EVR1-CT-2002-40024). Hydrodynamic transects and instrumented moorings were funded by the Office of Naval Research, NICOP Grant N00014-02-1-0252. The “Generalitat de Catalunya” is acknowledged for support through an excellence research group grant (2009-SGR-146). Seismic Microtechnology is acknowledged for Kingdom Suite educational license grant. We thank F. Foglini for Figs. 3 and 5. J. Déverchère (UBO-IUEM, Brest) and K. Yelles (CRAAG, Algiers) are thanked for discussions about the Algerian shelf. Constructive reviews by A. Fildani and P. Tommasi and editor F.L. Chiocci greatly improved the submitted version of the manuscript.

References

  1. Agate M, Lucido M (1995) Caratteri morfologici e sismostratigrafici della piattaforma continentale della Sicillia Nord-Occidentale: naturalista siciliana 29: 3–25Google Scholar
  2. Agate M, Di Grigoli G, Lo Iacono C, Lo Presti V, Mancuso M, Sulli A, Vaccaro F (2009) Decoding the instabilities features along the continental margin of sicily (central mediterranean Sea. Rend Online Soc Geol It 7:99–101Google Scholar
  3. Aksu AE, Piper DJW (1983) Progradation of the late Quatrnary Gediz delta. Mar Geol 54:1–25Google Scholar
  4. Albérola C, Rousseau S, Millot C, Astraldi M, Garcia-Lafuente JJ, Gasparini GP, Send U, Vangriesheim A (1995) Tidal currents in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Oceanol Acta 18:273–284Google Scholar
  5. Balanya JC, Garcia-Dueñas V, Azañon JM (1997) Alternating contractional and extensional events in the Alpujarride nappes of the Alborán Domain (Betics, Gibraltar Arc). Tectonics 16:226–238Google Scholar
  6. Bárcenas P, Fernández-Salas LM, Macías J, Lobo FJ, Díaz del Río V (2009) Estudio morfométrico comparativo entre las ondulaciones de los prodeltas de los rios de Andalucía Oriental. Revista de la Sociedad Geológica de España 22:43–56Google Scholar
  7. Bassetti MA, Jouët G, Dufois F, Berné S, Rabineau M, Taviani M (2006) Sand bodies at the shelf edge in the Gulf of Lions (Western Mediterranean): deglacial history and modern processes. Mar Geol 234:93–109Google Scholar
  8. Bellotti P, Chiocci FL, Milli S, Tortora P, Valeri P (1994) Sequence stratigraphy and depositional setting of the Tiber delta: integration of high-resolution seismics, well logs, and archeological data. J Sediment Res 64(3):416–432Google Scholar
  9. Benito G, Thorndycraft VR, Rico M, Sánchez-Moya Y, Sopeña A (2008) Palaeoflood and floodplain records from Spain: evidence for long-term climate variability and environmental changes. Geomorphology 101:68–77Google Scholar
  10. Berné S, Jouet G, Bassetti MA, Dennielou B, Taviani M (2007) Late glacial to preboreal sea-level rise recorded by the Rhône deltaic system (NW Mediterranean). Mar Geol 245:65–88Google Scholar
  11. Bhattacharya JP, Davies RK (2001) Growth faults at the prodelta to delta-front transition, Cretaceous Ferron sandstone, Utah, Mar. Petrol Geol 18:525–534Google Scholar
  12. Bøe R, Bugge T, Rise L, Eidnes G, Eide A, Mauring E (2004) Erosional channel incision and the origin of large sediment waves in Trondheimsfjorden, central Norway. Geo-Mar Lett 24:225–240Google Scholar
  13. Bolaños R, Jorda G, Cateura J, Lopez J, Puigdefabregas J, Gomeza J, Espino M (2009) The XIOM: 20 years of a regional coastal observatory in the Spanish Catalan coast. J Mar Syst 77:237–260Google Scholar
  14. Bornhold BD, Prior DB (1990) Morphology and sedimentary processes on the subacqueous Noeick river delta, British Columbia, Canada. In: Colella A, Prior DB (eds) Coarse-grained Deltas, Spec. Publ. 10. Int. Assoc. of Sedimentol, UK., pp 169–184Google Scholar
  15. Bossuet G, Ruffaldi P, Magny M, Richard H, Mouthon J (1996) Dynamique et approche quantitative des remplissages fini-et postwürmiens du bassin lacustre de Cerin (Jura, France). Bull Soc Géol Fr 167:483–494Google Scholar
  16. Cacchione DA, Drake DE, Losada MA, Medina R (1990) Bottom-boundary layer measurements on the continental shelf off the Ebro river, Spain. Mar Geol 95:179–192Google Scholar
  17. Calvert A, Sandvol E, Seber D, Baranzangi M, Roecker S, Mourabit T, Vidal F, Alguacil G, Jabour N (2000) Geodynamic evolution of the lithosphere and upper mantle beneath the Alborán region of the western Mediterranean: constraints from travel time tomography. J Geophys Res 105:10871–10898Google Scholar
  18. Cattaneo A, Correggiari A, Penitenti D, Trincardi F, Marsset B (2003) Morphobathymetry of small-scale mud reliefs on the Adriatic shelf. In: Locat J, Mienert J (eds) Submarine Mass Movements and their Consequences. Kluwer, Amsterdam, pp 401–408Google Scholar
  19. Cattaneo A, Correggiari A, Marsset T, Thomas Y, Marsset B, Trincardi F (2004) Seafloor undulation pattern on the adriatic shelf and comparison to deep-water sediment waves. Mar Geol 213(1–4):121–148Google Scholar
  20. Cattaneo A, Trincardi F, Asioli A, Correggiari A (2007) The western Adriatic shelf clinoform: energy-limited bottomset. Cont Shelf Res 27:506–525Google Scholar
  21. Cavaleri L (2005) The wind and wave atlas of the Mediterranean sea—the calibration phase. Adv Geosci 2:255–257Google Scholar
  22. Checa A, Díaz JI, Farrán M, Maldonado A (1988) Sistemas deltaicos holocenos de los ríos Llobregat, Besós y Foix: modelos evolutivos transgresivos. Acta Geològica Hispànica. 23:241–255Google Scholar
  23. Chiocci FL, Esu F, Tommasi P, Chiappa V (1996) Stability of the submarine slope of the Tiber River delta. In: Senneset K (ed) Landslides. Balkema, The Netherlands., pp 521–526Google Scholar
  24. Collettini C, Barchi MR (2004) A comparison of structural data and seismic images for low-angle normal faults in the northern Apennines (Central Italy): constraints on activity. In: Alsop GI, Holdworth RE (eds). Flow processes in faults and shear zones. J Geol Soc Lond Spec Publ 224, pp 95–112Google Scholar
  25. Collettini C, Chiaraluce L, Pucci S, Barchi MR, Cocco M (2005) Looking at fault reactivation matching structural geology and seismology. J Struct Geol 27:937–942Google Scholar
  26. Correggiari A, Trincardi F, Langone L, Roveri M (2001) Styles of failure in late Holocene highstand prodelta wedges on the Adriatic shelf. J Sediment Res 71:218–236Google Scholar
  27. Demestre M, Guillén J, Maynou F, Palanques A, Puig P, Recasens L, Sánchez P, Belzunces M, Bucci A, Cruz A, de Juan S, Visauta E (2004) Estimación del impacto de las obras del Plan Director sobre los recursos pesqueros que explota la flota pesquera de la cofradía de Barcelona. Technical report pp 302Google Scholar
  28. Díaz JI, Ercilla G (1993) Holocene depositional history of the Fluviá-Muga prodelta, northwestern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Geol 111:83–92Google Scholar
  29. Docherty C, Banda E (1995) Evidence of the eastward migration of the Alborán Sea: a case for basin formation by delamination of the subcrustal lithosphere? Tectonics 14:804–818Google Scholar
  30. Durrieu de Madron X, Zervakis V, Theocharis A, Georgopoulos D (2005) Comments to “Cascades of dense water around the world ocean”. Prog Oceanogr 64:83–90Google Scholar
  31. EEA (European Environment Agency) (2006) Waterbase: transitional, coastal and marine waters (v.4). Available on-line: http://dataservice.eea.europa.eu/dataservice/metadetails.asp?id=990
  32. Elgamal A, Yang Z, Parra E (2002) Computationalcmodeling of cyclic mobility and post-liquefaction site response. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 22:259–271. doi: 10.1016/S0267-7261(02)00022-2
  33. England P, Jackson J (1989) Active deformation of the continents. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 17:197–226Google Scholar
  34. Ercilla G, Díaz JI, Alonso B, Farrán M (1995) Late Pleistocene-Holocene sedimentary evolution of the northern Catalonia continental shelf (northwestern Mediterranean Sea). Cont Shelf Res 15:1435–1451Google Scholar
  35. Faccenna C, Piromallo C, Crespo-Blanc A, Jolivert L, Rossett F (2004) Lateral slab deformation and the origin of the Mediterranean arcs. Tectonics 23: doi: 10.1029/2002TC001488
  36. Fain AMV, Ogston AS, Sternberg RW (2007) Sediment transport event analysis on the western Adriatic continental shelf. Cont Shelf Res 27:431–451Google Scholar
  37. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) (2007) AQUASTAT: global river sediment yields database. Land Water Development Division. http://www.fao.org/ag/aGL/aglw/aquastat/sediment/index.asp
  38. Fernández-Salas LM, Lobo FJ, Sanz JL, Diaz-del-Rio V, Garcia MC, Moreno I (2007) Morphometric analysis and genetic implications of pro-deltaic sea-floor undulations in the northern Alboran Sea margin, western Mediterranean Basin. Mar Geol 243:31–56Google Scholar
  39. Field ME, Barber Jr JH (1993) A submarine landslide associated with shallow sea-floor gas and gas-hydrates off northern California. In: Schwab WC et al. (eds) Submarine landslides: selected studies in the US exclusive economic zone, Surv. Bull. US Geol. Soc. 2002, USA. pp 151–157Google Scholar
  40. Fildani A, Normark WR, Kostic S, Parker G (2006) Channel formation by flow stripping: large-scale scour features along the Monterey east channel and their relation to sediment waves. Sedimentology 53:1265–1287Google Scholar
  41. Font J, Salat J, Julià A (1990) Marine circulation along the Ebro continental margin. Mar Geol 95:165–177Google Scholar
  42. Gallignani P (1982) Recent sedimentation processes on the Calabrian continental shelf and slope (Tyrrenian Sea, Italy). Oceanol Acta 5:493–500Google Scholar
  43. Gardner JV, Prior DB, Field ME (1999) Humboldt slide–a large shear-dominated retrogressive slope failure. Mar Geol 154:323–338Google Scholar
  44. Heinio P, Davies RJ (2009) Trails of depressions and sediment waves along submarine channels on the continental margin of Espirito Santo Basin, Brazil. GSA Bull 121:698–711Google Scholar
  45. Hernández-Molina FJ, Somoza L, Rey J, Pomar L (1994) Late Pleistocene-Holocene sediments on the Spanish continental shelves: model for very high resolution sequence stratigraphy. Mar Geol 120:129–174Google Scholar
  46. Hill PR, Conway K, Lintern DG, Meulé S, Picard K, Barrie JV (2008) Sedimentary processes and sediment dispersal in the southern strait of Georgia, BC, Canada. Mar Environ Res 66:S39–S48Google Scholar
  47. Hughes Clarke JE, Brucker S, Hill P, Conway K (2009) Monitoring morphological evolution of fjord deltas in temperate and Arctic regions: international conference on seafloor mapping for Geohazard assessment, Editors: Chiocci FL, Ridente D, Casalbore D, Bosman A, Rendiconti online della Societá Geologica Italiana 7(4):147–150Google Scholar
  48. Imran J, Syvitski JPM (2000) Impact of extreme river events on the coastal ocean. Oceanography 13:85–92Google Scholar
  49. Jiménez JA, Guillén J, Gracia V, Palanques A, García MA, Sánchez-Arcilla A, Puig P, Puigdefábregas J, Rodriguez G (1999) Water and sediment fluxes on the Ebro delta shoreface. On the role of low frequency currents. Mar Geol 157:219–239Google Scholar
  50. Jiménez-Munt I, Sabadini R, Gardi A, Bianco G (2006) Active deformation in the Mediterranean from Gibraltar to Anatolia inferred from numerical modeling and geodetic and seismological data. J Geophys Res 108 doi: 10.1029/2001JB001544
  51. Johnson C, Harbury N, Hurford A (1997) The role of extension in the Miocene denudation of the Nevado-Filabride complex, Betic Cordillera (SE Spain). Tectonics 16:189–204Google Scholar
  52. Jouet G, Berné S, Rabineau M, Bassetti MA, Bernier P, Dennielou B (2006) Shoreface migrations at the shelf edge and sea-level changes around the last glacial maximum (Gulf of Lions, NW Mediterranean Sea). Mar Geol 234:21–42Google Scholar
  53. Kostic S, Parker G (2006) The response to a canyon-fan transition: internal hydraulic jumps and depositional signatures. J Hydraul Res 44:631–653Google Scholar
  54. Kostic S, Parker G (2007) Conditions under which a supercritical turbidity current traverses an abrupt transition to vanishing bed slope without a hydraulic jump. J Fluid Mech 586:119–145Google Scholar
  55. Lambeck K, Bard E (2000) Sea-level changes along the French Mediterranean coast for the past 30,000 years. Earth Planet Sci Lett 175:203–222Google Scholar
  56. Lambeck K, Antonioli F, Purcell A, Silenzi S (2004) Sea level change along the Italian coast from the past 10,000 yr. Quat Sci Rev 23:1567–1598Google Scholar
  57. Le Vourch J, Millot C, Castagné N, Le Borgne P, Olry JP (1992) Atlas of thermal fronts of the Mediterranean Sea derived from satellite imagery, vol 16. Mémoires de l’Institut Océanographique, Monaco, p 146Google Scholar
  58. Leder N (2002) Wind-induced internal wave dynamics near the Adriatic shelf break. Cont Shelf Res 22:445–463Google Scholar
  59. Lee HJ, Syvitsky JPM, Parker G, Orange D, Locat J, Hutton JHW, Imran J (2002) Distinguishing sediment waves from slope failure deposits: field examples, including the “Humboldt Slide” and modelling results. Mar Geol 192:79–104Google Scholar
  60. Lionello P, Sanna A (2005) Mediterranean wave climate variability and its links with NAO and Indian monsoon. Clim Dyn 25:611–623Google Scholar
  61. Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R, Alpert P, Artale V, Li L, Luterbacher J, May W, Trigo R, Tsimplis M, Ulbrich U, Xoplaki E (2006) The Mediterranean climate: an overview of the main characteristics and issues. In: Lionello P, Malanotte-Rizzoli P, Boscolo R (eds) Mediterranean climate variability. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 421Google Scholar
  62. Liquete C, Arnau P, Canals M, Colas S (2005) Mediterranean river systems of Andalusia, southern Spain, and associated deltas: a source to sink approach. Mar Geol 222–223:471–495Google Scholar
  63. Liquete C, Canals M, Lastras G, Amblas D, Urgeles R, De Mol B, De Batist M, Hughes-Clarke JE (2007) Long-term development and current status of the Barcelona continental shelf: a source-to-sink approach, continental shelf research doi: 10.1016/j.csr.2007.02.007
  64. Liquete C, Canals M, Ludwig W, Arnau P (2009) Sediment discharge of the rivers of Catalonia, NE Spain, and the influence of human impacts. J Hydrol 366(1–4):76–88 doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.12.013 Google Scholar
  65. Lonergan L, White N (1997) Origin of the Betic-Rif mountain belt. Tectonics 16:504–522Google Scholar
  66. Ludwig W, Dumont E, Meybeck M, Heussner S (2009) River discharges of water and nutrients to the Mediterranean and Black Sea: major drivers for ecosystem changes during past and future decades? Prog Oceanogr 80:199–217Google Scholar
  67. Lykousis V (1991) Submarine slope instabilities in the Hellenic arc region, northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 10:83–96Google Scholar
  68. Lykousis V, Sakellariou D, Rousakis G (2003) Prodelta slope stability and associated coastal hazards in tectonically active margins: Gulf of Corinth (NE Mediterranean). In: Locat J, Meinert J (eds) Submarine mass movements and their consequences, pp 433–440Google Scholar
  69. Lykousis V, Roussakis G, Sakellariou D (2009) Slope failures and stability analysis of shallow water prodeltas in the active margins of Western Greece, northeastern Mediterranean Sea. Int J Earth Sci (Geol Rundsch) 98:807–822Google Scholar
  70. Marsset T, Marsset B, Thomas Y, Cochonat P, Cattaneo A, Tricardi F (2004) Analysis of Holocene sedimentary features on the Adriatic shelf from 3D very high resolution seismic data (Triad survey). Mar Geol 213(1–4):73–89Google Scholar
  71. Martinez-Martinez JM, Azañon JM (1997) Mode of extensional tectonics in the southeastern Betics (SE Spain): implications for the tectonic evolution of the peri-Alborán orogenic system. Tectonics 16:205–225Google Scholar
  72. Mazumder R (2003) Sediment transport, aqueous bedform stability and morphodynamics under unidirectional current: a brief overview. J Afr Earth Sci 36:1–14Google Scholar
  73. McKenzie DP (1972) Active tectonics of the Mediterranean region. Geophys J R Astron Soc 30:109–185Google Scholar
  74. Milliman JD, Syvitski JPM (1992) Geomorphic/tectonic control of sediment discharge to the ocean: the importance of small mountainous rivers. J Geol 100:525–544Google Scholar
  75. Millot C (1990) The Gulf of Lions’ hydrodynamics. Cont Shelf Res 10:885–894Google Scholar
  76. Millot C, Crépon M (1981) Inertial fluctuations on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions-observations and theory. J Phys Oceanogr 11:639–657Google Scholar
  77. Millot C, Taupier-Letage I (2005a) Additional evidence of LIW entrainment across the Algerian Basin by mesoscale eddies and not by a permanent westward-flowing vein. Prog Oceanogr 66:231–250Google Scholar
  78. Millot C, Taupier-Letage I (2005b) Circulation in the Mediterranean Sea. Env Chem 5:29–66Google Scholar
  79. Millot C, Wald L (1980) The effect of Mistral wind on the Ligurian Current near provence. Oceanol Acta 3:399–402Google Scholar
  80. Monaco A, Courp T, Heussner S, Carbonne J, Fowler SW, Deniaux B (1990) Seasonality and composition of particulate fluxes during ECOMARGE-I, western Gulf of Lions. Cont Shelf Res 9–11:959–987Google Scholar
  81. Mosher DC, Thomson RE (2002) The foreslope hills: large-scale, fine-grained sediment waves in the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Mar Geol 192:275–295Google Scholar
  82. Mougenot D, Buillot G, Rehault JP (1983) Prograding shelf break types on passive margins: some European examples. In: Stanley DJ, Moore GT (eds) The shelfbrak: critical interface on continental margins, vol 3. SEPM Special publication, Tulsa, pp 61–77Google Scholar
  83. Nakajima T, Satoh M (2001) The formation of large mudwaves by turbidity currents on the levees of the Toyama deep-sea channel, Japan Sea. Sedimentology 48:435–463Google Scholar
  84. Normark WR, Piper DJW, Hess GR (1979) Distributary channels, sand lobes, and mesotopography of navy submarine fan, California Borderland, with applications to ancient fan sediments. Sedimentology 26:749–774Google Scholar
  85. Normark WR, Hess GR, Stow DAV, Bow AJ (1980) Sediment waves on the Monterrey fan levee: a preliminary physical interpretation. Mar Geol 42:201–232Google Scholar
  86. Normark WR, Piper DJW, Posamentier H, Pirmez C, Migeon S (2002) Variability in form and growth of sediment waves on turbidite channel levees. Mar Geol 192:23–58Google Scholar
  87. Palanques A, Puig P, Guillén J, Jiménez J, Gracia V, Sánchez-Arcilla A, Madsen O (2002) Near-bottom suspended sediment fluxes on the microtidal low-energy Ebro continental shelf (NW Mediterranean). Cont Shelf Res 22:285–303Google Scholar
  88. Parker G, Toniolo H (2007) Note on the analysis of plunging of density flows. J Hydraul Eng 133:690–694Google Scholar
  89. Platt JP, Vissers RLM (1989) Extensional collapse of thickened continental lithosphere: a working hypothesis for the Alborán Sea and Gibraltar arc. Geology 17:540–543Google Scholar
  90. Platt JP, Soto JI, Whitehouse MJ, Hurford AJ, Kelley SP (1998) Thermal evolution, rate of exhumation, and tectonic significance of metamorphic rocks from the floor of the Alborán extensional basin, western Mediterranean. Tectonics 17:671–689Google Scholar
  91. Probst JL, Amiotte-Suchet P (1992) Fluvial suspended sediment transport and mechanical erosion in the Maghreb (North Africa). J Hydrol Sci 37:621–637Google Scholar
  92. Puig P, Palanques A, Guillén J (2001) Near-bottom suspended sediment variability caused by storms and near-inertial waves on the Ebro mid continental shelf (NW Mediterranean). Mar Geol 178:81–93Google Scholar
  93. Puig P, Ogston AS, Guillén J, Fain AMV, Palanques A (2007) Sediment transport processes from the topset to the foreset of a crenulated clinoform (Adriatic Sea). Cont Shelf Res 27:452–474Google Scholar
  94. Rebesco M, Neagu RC, Cuppari A, Muto A, Accettella D, Dominici R, Cova A, Romano C, Caburlotto A (2009) Morphobathymetric analysis and evidence of submarine mass movements in the western Gulf of Taranto (Calabria margin, Ionian Sea). Int J Earth Sci 98:791–805Google Scholar
  95. RIKZ, IGN, EADS, BRGM, UAB, IFEN, EUCC (2004) Living with coastal erosion in Europe: sediment and space for sustainability. EUROSION Atlas Part II: Maps and statistics. Available on-line: http://www.eurosion.org/reports-online/part2.pdf
  96. Romagnoli C, Gabbianelli G (1990) Late Quaternary sedimentation and soft sediment deformation features in the Coriglliano Basin. North Ionian sea (Mediterranean). Giornale di Geologia 52:33–53Google Scholar
  97. Sacchi M, Insinga D, Milia A, Molisso F, Raspini A, Torrente MM, Conforti A (2005) Stratigraphic signature of the Vesuvius 79 AD event off the Sarno prodelta system, Naples Bay. Mar Geol 222–223:443–469Google Scholar
  98. Seber D, Baranzagi M, Ibenbrahim A, Demnati A (1996) Geophysical evidence for lithospheric delamination beneath the Alborán Sea and the Rif-Betic mountains. Nature 379:785–790Google Scholar
  99. Shackleton NJ (1987) Oxygen isotopes, ice volume and sea level. Quat Sci Rev 6:183–190Google Scholar
  100. Shackleton NJ (2000) The 100,000-year Ice-Age cycle found to lag temperature, carbon dioxide, and orbital eccentricity. Science 289:1897–1902Google Scholar
  101. Sivan D, Wdowinski S, Lambeck K, Galili E, Raban A (2001) Holocene sea-level changes along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, based on archaeological observations and numerical model. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 167:101–117Google Scholar
  102. Skempton AW (1954) Discussion of the structure of inorganic soils. J. Soil Mech Found Div 80:263–264Google Scholar
  103. Sultan N, Cochonat P, Canals M, Cattaneo A, Dennielou B, Haflidason H, Laberg JS, Long D, Mienert J, Trincardi F, Urgeles R, Vorren TO, Wilson C (2004) Triggering mechanisms of slope instability processes and sediment failures on continental margins: a geotechnical approach. Mar Geol 213(1–4):291–321Google Scholar
  104. Sultan N, Cattaneo A, Urgeles R, Lee H, Locat J, Trincardi F, Berne S, Canals M, Lafuerza S (2008) A geomechanical approach for the genesis of sediment undulations on the Adriatic shelf Geochem Geophys Geosyst 9 Q04R03 doi: 10.1029/2007GC001822
  105. Syvistski JP, Morehead MD, Bahr DB, Mulder T (2000) Estimating fluvial sediment transport: the rating parameters. Water Resour Res 36:2747–2760Google Scholar
  106. Syvitski JPM, Milliman JD (2007) Geology, geography, and humans battle for dominance over the delivery of fluvial sediment to the coastal ocean. J Geol 115:1–19Google Scholar
  107. Syvitsky JPM, Kettner AJ (2007) On the flux of water and sediment into the Northern Adriatic Sea. Cont Shelf Res 27:296–308Google Scholar
  108. Thorndycraft VR, Benito G, Rico M, Sopeña A, Sánchez-Moya Y, Casas A (2005) A long-term flood discharge record derived from slack-water flood deposits of the Llobregat River, NE Spain. J Hydrol 313:16–31Google Scholar
  109. Tommasi P, Chiocci F, Esu F (1998) Geotechnical properties of soft clayey sediments from the submerged tiber river delta, Italy. Mar Georesour Geotechnol 16:221–242Google Scholar
  110. Trincardi F, Normark WR (1988) Sediment waves on the Tiber pro-delta slope. Geo-Mar Lett 8:149–157Google Scholar
  111. Trincardi F, Cattaneo A, Correggiari A (2004) Mediterranean prodelta systems: natural evolution and human impact investigated by EURODELTA. Oceanography 17:34–45Google Scholar
  112. Tsimplis MN, Proctor R, Flather RA (1995) A two-dimensional tidal model for the Mediterranean Sea. J Geophys Res Oceans 100:16223–16239Google Scholar
  113. Ulses C, Estournel C, Durrieu de Madron X, Palanques A (2008) Suspended sediment transport in the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean): Impact of extreme storms and floods. Cont Shelf Res 28:2048–2070Google Scholar
  114. UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme) (2003) Riverine transport of water, sediments and pollutants to the Mediterranean Sea. MAP Technical Reports Series 141, Athens, 111 ppGoogle Scholar
  115. Urgeles R, De Mol B, Liquete C, Canals M, De Batist M, Hughes-Clarke JE, Amblàs D, Arnau PA, Calafat AM, Casamor JL, Centella V, De Rycker K, Fabrés J, Frigola J, Lafuerza S, Lastras G, Sànchez A, Zuñiga D, Versteeg W, Willmott V (2007) Sediment undulations on the Llobregat prodelta: Signs of early slope instability or bottom current activity?. J Geophys Res 112 Art. No. B05102Google Scholar
  116. Vannucci G, Pondrelli S, Argnani A, Morelli A, Gasperini P, Boschi E (2004) An atlas of Mediterranean seismicity. Ann Geophys 47Google Scholar
  117. Vanoudheusden E, Sultan N, Cochonat P (2004) Mechanical behaviour of unsaturated marine sediments: experimental and theoretical approaches. Mar Geol 213:323–342Google Scholar
  118. Verdicchio G, Trincardi F (2006) Short-distance variability in slope bed-forms along the southwestern Adriatic Margin (Central Mediterranean). Mar Geol 234:271–292Google Scholar
  119. Vissers RLM, Platt JP, van der Wal D (1995) Late orogenic extension of the Betic Cordillera and the Alborán domain: a lithospheric view. Tectonics 14:786–803Google Scholar
  120. Waelbroeck C, Labeyrie LD, Michel E, Duplessy J-C, McManus J, Lambeck K, Balbon E, Labracherie M (2002) Sea level and deep water changes derived from benthic foraminifera isotopic record. Quat Sci Rev 21:295–305Google Scholar
  121. Wheatcroft RA, Borgeld JC (2000) Oceanic flood layers on the northern California margin: large-scale distribution and small-scale physical properties. Cont Shelf Res 20:2163–2190Google Scholar
  122. Wheatcroft RA, Stevens AW, Hunt LM, Milligan TG (2006) The large-scale distribution and internal geometry of the fall 2000 Po river flood deposit: evidence from digital X-radiography. Cont Shelf Res 26:499–516Google Scholar
  123. Wynn RB, Stow DAV (2002) Classification and characterization of deep-water sediment waves. Mar Geol 192:7–22Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roger Urgeles
    • 1
  • Antonio Cattaneo
    • 2
  • Pere Puig
    • 1
  • Camino Liquete
    • 3
  • Ben De Mol
    • 4
    • 5
  • David Amblàs
    • 4
  • Nabil Sultan
    • 2
  • Fabio Trincardi
    • 6
  1. 1.Departament de Geologia MarinaInstitut de Ciències del Mar (CSIC)Barcelona, CataloniaSpain
  2. 2.GM-LESIFREMERPlouzané Cédex, BretagneFrance
  3. 3.Institute for Environment and SustainabilityEuropean Commission - Joint Research CentreIspraItaly
  4. 4.Departament d’Estratigrafia, Paleontologia i Geociències Marines, Facultat de GeologiaUniversitat de BarcelonaBarcelona, CataloniaSpain
  5. 5.Parc Científic de BarcelonaBarcelona, CataloniaSpain
  6. 6.ISMAR (CNR)BolognaItaly

Personalised recommendations