Discrete element simulation of dynamic behaviour of partially saturated sand

  • E. A. Flores-Johnson
  • S. Wang
  • F. Maggi
  • A. El Zein
  • Y. Gan
  • G. D. Nguyen
  • Luming Shen
Article

Abstract

The discrete element method (DEM) together with the finite element method (FEM) in LS-DYNA was employed to investigate the dynamic behaviour of sand under impact loading. In this approach, the partially saturated sand was modelled in DEM with capillary forces being taken into account through an implicit capillary contact model, while other solids were simulated using FEM. A slump test was first performed with dry sand to calibrate the contact parameters in DEM. Low velocity impact tests were then conducted to investigate the effect of water saturation on the shape and height of sand piles after impact, and to validate the simulations. It was found in the experiments that an increasing water saturation (in the range between 10 and 30 %) affected the height of sand pile for a given drop height due to an increasing cohesion between particles. The simulations captured the experimental ejecta patterns and sand pile height. Finally, a low confinement split Hopkinson pressure bar test from earlier literature was modelled; the DEM–FEM simulations could reproduce the trends of experimentally observed stress–strain curves of partially saturated sand under high strain rate loading, indicating that it was feasible to model dynamic behaviour of dry and wet sand with low saturation (<20 %) in LS-DYNA; however, a number of questions remain open about the effect of grain shape, grain crushing and viscosity.

Keywords

Partially saturated sand Impact Capillary force Discrete element method DEM–FEM simulation LS-DYNA 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported in part by the Australian Research Council Discovery Projects (DP140100945), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11232003). This research was undertaken with the assistance of resources from the National Computational Infrastructure (NCI), which is supported by the Australian Government.

References

  1. Shahbodagh-Khan, B., Khalili, N., Alipour Esgandani, G.: A numerical model for nonlinear large deformation dynamic analysis of unsaturated porous media including hydraulic hysteresis. Comput. Geomech. 69, 411–423 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Omidvar, M., Iskander, M., Bless, S.: Stress–strain behavior of sand at high strain rates. Int. J. Impact Eng 49, 192–213 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Martin, B.E., Chen, W., Song, B., Akers, S.A.: Moisture effects on the high strain-rate behavior of sand. Int. J. Impact Eng 41, 786–798 (2009)Google Scholar
  4. Saleh, M., Edwards, L.: Evaluation of soil and fluid structure interaction in blast modelling of the flying plate test. Comput. Struct. 151, 96–114 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Mitarai, N., Nori, F.: Wet granular materials. Adv. Phys. 55, 1–45 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Veyera, G.E.: Uniaxial Stress–Strain Behavior of Unsaturated Soils at High Strain Rates. Wright Laboratory, Flight Dynamics Directorate, Tyndall AFB (1994)Google Scholar
  7. Horn, H.M., Deere, D.U.: Frictional Characteristics of Minerals. Géotechnique 12, 319–335 (1962)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Takita, H., Sumita, I.: Low-velocity impact cratering experiments in a wet sand target. Phys. Rev. E 88, 022203 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Park, S., Uth, T., Fleck, N.A., Wadley, H.N.G., Deshpande, V.S.: Sand column impact onto a Kolsky pressure bar. Int. J. Impact Eng 62, 229–242 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kong, X., Fang, Q., Hong, J., Wu, H.: Numerical study of the wake separation and reattachment effect on the trajectory of a hard projectile. Int. J. Prot. Struct. 5, 97–118 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Li, Q.M., Flores-Johnson, E.A.: Hard projectile penetration and trajectory stability. Int. J. Impact Eng 38, 815–823 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Omidvar, M., Iskander, M., Bless, S.: Response of granular media to rapid penetration. Int. J. Impact Eng 66, 60–82 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Børvik, T., Olovsson, L., Hanssen, A.G., Dharmasena, K.P., Hansson, H., Wadley, H.N.G.: A discrete particle approach to simulate the combined effect of blast and sand impact loading of steel plates. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 59, 940–958 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borg, J.P., Morrissey, M.P., Perich, C.A., Vogler, T.J., Chhabildas, L.C.: In situ velocity and stress characterization of a projectile penetrating a sand target: experimental measurements and continuum simulations. Int. J. Impact Eng 51, 23–35 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Alonso-Marroquín, F., Herrmann, H.J.: The incremental response of soils: an investigation using a discrete-element model. J. Eng. Math. 52, 11–34 (2005)MathSciNetCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Alonso-Marroquín, F., Wang, Y.: An efficient algorithm for granular dynamics simulations with complex-shaped objects. Granul. Matter 11, 317–329 (2009)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Gan, Y., Kamlah, M.: Discrete element modelling of pebble beds: with application to uniaxial compression tests of ceramic breeder pebble beds. J. Mech. Phys. Solids 58, 129–144 (2010)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Alonso-Marroquín, F., Ramírez-Gómez, Á., González-Montellano, C., Balaam, N., Hanaor, D.H., Flores-Johnson, E.A., Gan, Y., Chen, S., Shen, L.: Experimental and numerical determination of mechanical properties of polygonal wood particles and their flow analysis in silos. Granul. Matter 15, 811–826 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dwivedi, S.K., Teeter, R.D., Felice, C.W., Gupta, Y.M.: Two dimensional mesoscale simulations of projectile instability during penetration in dry sand. J. Appl. Phys. 104, 083502 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Oñate, E., Rojek, J.: Combination of discrete element and finite element methods for dynamic analysis of geomechanics problems. Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 193, 3087–3128 (2004)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. Scholtès, L., Chareyre, B., Nicot, F., Darve, F.: Discrete modelling of capillary mechanisms in multi-phase granular media. CMES Comput. Model. Eng. Sci. 52, 297–318 (2009)MATHGoogle Scholar
  22. Grima, A., Wypych, P.: Development and validation of calibration methods for discrete element modelling. Granul. Matter 13, 127–132 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gröger, T., Tüzün, U., Heyes, D.M.: Modelling and measuring of cohesion in wet granular materials. Powder Technol. 133, 203–215 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gan, Y., Maggi, F., Buscarnera, G., Einav, I.: A particle-water based model for water retention hysteresis. Geotech. Lett. 3, 152–161 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Elperin, T., Golshtein, E.: Comparison of different models for tangential forces using the particle dynamics method. Phys. A 242, 332–340 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Flores-Johnson, E.A., Li, Q.M.: Low velocity impact on polymeric foams. J. Cell. Plast. 47, 45–63 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cundall, P.A., Strack, O.D.L.: A discrete numerical model for granular assemblies. Géotechnique 29, 47–65 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hallquist, J.O.: LS-DYNA Keyword User’s Manual, Version R8.0. Livermore Software Technology Corporation, California (2015)Google Scholar
  29. Jensen, A., Fraser, K., Laird, G.: Improving the precision of discrete element simulations through calibration models. In: 13th International LS-DYNA Conference, Detroit (2014)Google Scholar
  30. Pandey, P., Song, Y., Turton, R.: Chapter 8 modelling of pan-coating processes for pharmaceutical dosage forms. In: Salman, M.J.H.A.D., Seville, J.P.K. (eds.) Handbook of Powder Technology, pp. 377–416. Elsevier Science B.V, Amsterdam (2007)Google Scholar
  31. Wriggers, P.: Computational Contact Mechanics, 2nd edn. Berlin, Springer (2006)CrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  32. Karajan, N., Han, Z., Teng, H., Wang, J.: On the parameter estimation for the discrete-element method in LS-DYNA. In: 13th International LS-DYNA Conference, Detroit (2014)Google Scholar
  33. Karajan, N., Lisner, E., Han, Z., Teng, H., Wang, J.: Particles as discrete elements in LS-DYNA: interaction with themselves as well as deformable or rigid structures. In: 11th LS-DYNA Forum, Ulm (2012)Google Scholar
  34. Karajan, N., Asperberg, D., Teng, H., Han, Z., Wang, J.: Workshop on the discrete-element method in LS-DYNA. In: 10th European LS-DYNA Conference, Würzburg (2015)Google Scholar
  35. Coetzee, C.J., Nel, R.G.: Calibration of discrete element properties and the modelling of packed rock beds. Powder Technol. 264, 332–342 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Coetzee, C.J., Els, D.N.J.: Calibration of discrete element parameters and the modelling of silo discharge and bucket filling. Comput. Electron. Agric. 65, 198–212 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Grger, T., Katterfeld, A.: On the numerical calibration of discrete element models for the simulation of bulk solids. In: Marquardt, W., Pantelides, C. (eds.) Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, pp. 533–538. Elsevier, Amsterdam (2006)Google Scholar
  38. Rabinovich, Y.I., Esayanur, M.S., Moudgil, B.M.: Capillary forces between two spheres with a fixed volume liquid bridge: theory and experiment. Langmuir 21, 10992–10997 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lian, G., Thornton, C., Adams, M.J.: A theoretical study of the liquid bridge forces between two rigid spherical bodies. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 161, 138–147 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rietema, K.: The Dynamics of Fine Powders. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Uesugi, M., Kishida, H.: Influential factors of friction between steel and dry sands. Soils Found. 26, 33–46 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kabir, M.E., Song, B., Martin, B.E., Chen, W.: Compressive behavior of fine sand. Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (2010)Google Scholar
  43. Song, B., Chen, W., Luk, V.: Impact compressive response of dry sand. Mech. Mater. 41, 777–785 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. A. Flores-Johnson
    • 1
  • S. Wang
    • 1
  • F. Maggi
    • 1
  • A. El Zein
    • 1
  • Y. Gan
    • 1
  • G. D. Nguyen
    • 2
  • Luming Shen
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringThe University of SydneySydneyAustralia
  2. 2.School of Civil, Environmental and Mining EngineeringThe University of AdelaideAdelaideAustralia

Personalised recommendations