A Virtual Resiliency Intervention Promoting Resiliency for Parents of Children with Learning and Attentional Disabilities: A Randomized Pilot Trial

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One in five children have a learning and attentional disability (LAD). Parents of children with LAD are vulnerable to distress, but an evidence-based treatment has not been developed.


From June 2016 to November 2017, we conducted a mixed methods study to adapt and assess the virtual delivery of a mind-body group resiliency program, the Stress Management and Resiliency Training-Relaxation Response Resiliency Program (SMART-3RP), to meet the needs of parents of children with LAD; this is an 8-session weekly group intervention. In the first phase, we conducted 4 parent focus group interviews, 2 professional focus group interviews, and 5 professional individual interviews, and 1 pilot group to adapt the SMART-3RP to target the needs of parents of children with LAD. In the second phase, we conducted a pilot wait-list controlled study to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a videoconferencing delivery of the adapted program. Parents were randomized to an immediate intervention group (IG) or wait-list control group (WC). Surveys were administered at baseline (time 1), end of intervention for the IG or 3 months post-baseline for the WC (time 2), and 3 months post treatment for the IG or end of intervention for the WC (time 3).


Qualitative findings illustrated high levels of parental stress, with primary stressors including navigating the educational system, interactions with other parents, familial concerns, and financial and professional sacrifices. We adapted the manual to target these stressors and modified session logistics and delivery. Fifty-three parents (mean age = 46.8; 90.6% female) participated nationally in the pilot trial. 62.5% of participants completed ≥ 6/8 sessions; 81.8% reported continued daily/weekly relaxation response exercise practice. T1–T2 comparisons found that IG versus WC participants showed significant improvements in distress [VAS], ∆M = − 1.95; d = .83 and resilience [CES], ∆M = 6.38; d = .83, as well as stress coping [MOCS-A] ∆M = 8.69; d = 1.39; depression and anxiety [PHQ-4], ∆M = − 1.79; d = .71; social support [MOS-SSS], ∆M = 5.47; d = .71; and empathy [IRI], ∆M = 3.17; d = .77; improvements were sustained at the 3 month post intervention follow-up.


Pilot wait-list randomized trial findings showed promising feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy for the SMART-3RP intervention adapted for parents of children with LAD. This virtually-delivered resiliency intervention improved parents’ distress, resiliency, and stress coping, which were sustained.

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Correspondence to Elyse R. Park.

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Park, E.R., Perez, G.K., Millstein, R.A. et al. A Virtual Resiliency Intervention Promoting Resiliency for Parents of Children with Learning and Attentional Disabilities: A Randomized Pilot Trial. Matern Child Health J 24, 39–53 (2020).

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  • Family
  • Stress
  • Resilience
  • Distress
  • Learning and attentional disability
  • Children
  • Parents
  • Mind-body
  • Intervention