Body Image Dissatisfaction, Obesity and Their Associations with Breastfeeding in Mexican Women, a Cross-Sectional Study
- 4 Downloads
Introduction In Mexico the breastfeeding rate is low and the obesity rate is high. Body image concerns, particularly prevalent in obese women, are associated with low breastfeeding rate; however, this association has never been examined in Mexican women. To fill this need, we examined the association between body image dissatisfaction (BID) and breastfeeding across levels of maternal weight status in Mexican women. Methods A cross-sectional study was used, utilizing data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) for 2012. The breastfeeding (Never or breastfed less than 30 days, Still breastfeeding, Ever breastfed) of the last child (age ≤ 3 years), BID (Stunkard Figure Rating Scale), anthropometric (Body Mass Index, BMI), and associated characteristics were collected. Weighted-multinomial logistic regression models were utilized to examine the adjusted association between BID and breastfeeding and the effect modification of maternal weight status. Results Overall, 2422 women aged 20–49 years met the eligibility criteria. Of these, 247 (10.8%) had never breastfed or breastfed less than 30 days, 826 (32%) were still breastfeeding, and 1349 (57.2%) had breastfed. A total of 38.2% were overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg m2) and 26.2% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg m2). In the adjusted model, while stratifying by maternal weight status levels, a greater BID was associated with a lower odds of sill breastfeeding (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.45–0.75) and having breastfed (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.50–0.83) only among women with BMI ≥ 30 kg m2. Discussion The results highlight the potential relationship between body image concerns and breastfeeding in Mexican women with obesity. However, the causality of such relationship needs further investigation, ideally using a longitudinal study design.
KeywordsBreastfeeding Body image dissatisfaction Obesity Mexican women
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.
- Barnes, J., Stein, A., Smith, T., & Pollock, J. I. (1997). Extreme attitudes to body shape, social and psychological factors and a reluctance to breast feed. ALSPAC study team avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 90(10), 551–559.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Bartok, C. J., Schaefer, E. W., Beiler, J. S., & Paul, I. M. (2012). Role of body mass index and gestational weight gain in breastfeeding outcomes. Breastfeeding Medicine: The Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine, 7(6), 448–456. https://doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2011.0127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Center for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC. (2012). Breastfeeding among U.S. children born 2002–2012, CDC national immunization survey. http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/nis_data/.
- Chavez Hernandez, I. M., Saucedo-Molina Tde, J., Irecta, P. A., & Santoncini, U. C. (2015). Eating disorders associated risk factors: Trends from 2007 to 2010. Revista Investiagcion Clinica, 67(1), 54–63.Google Scholar
- Fagerland, M. W. (2012). A generalized Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test for multinomial logistic regression models. Stata Journal, 12(3), 447.Google Scholar
- Gonzalez de Cossio, T., Escobar-Zaragoza, L., Gonzalez-Castell, D., Reyes-Vazquez, H., & Rivera-Dommarco, J. A. (2013). Breastfeeding in Mexico was stable, on average, but deteriorated among the poor, whereas complementary feeding improved: results from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Surveys. The Journal of Nutrition, 143(5), 664–671. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.112.163097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gordon, K. H., Castro, Y., Sitnikov, L., & Holm-Denoma, J. M. (2010). Cultural body shape ideals and eating disorder symptoms among White, Latina, and Black college women. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 16(2), 135–143. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hauff, L. E., Leonard, S. A., & Rasmussen, K. M. (2014). Associations of maternal obesity and psychosocial factors with breastfeeding intention, initiation, and duration. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 99(3), 524–534. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.113.071191.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Perez-Gil, R. S., & Romero, J. G. (2010). Women’s body-image in three rural areas in Mexico: Perception and desire. Salud Publica Mex, 52(2), 111–118.Google Scholar
- Prior, E., Santhakumaran, S., Gale, C., Philipps, L. H., Modi, N., & Hyde, M. J. (2012). Breastfeeding after cesarean delivery: A systematic review and meta-analysis of world literature. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 95(5), 1113–1135. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.111.030254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rasmussen, K. M. (2007). Association of maternal obesity before conception with poor lactation performance. Annual Review of Nutrition, 27, 103–121. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nutr.27.061406.093738.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Romero-Martinez, M., Shamah-Levy, T., Franco-Nunez, A., Villalpando, S., Cuevas-Nasu, L., Gutierrez, J. P., & Rivera-Dommarco, J. A. (2013). National health and nutrition survey 2012: Design and coverage. [Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutricion 2012: diseno y cobertura]. Salud Publica De Mexico, 55(Suppl 2), 332–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Silveira, M. L., Ertel, K. A., Dole, N., & Chasan-Taber, L. (2015). The role of body-image in prenatal and postpartum depression: A critical review of the literature. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 18(3), 409–421. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-015-0525-0.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- StataCorp. (2013). Stata Statistical Software: Release 13. College Station. TX: StataCorp LP.Google Scholar
- U.S. Census of Bureau. (2014). Facts for features: Hispanic heritage month 2014: Sept. 15–Oct. 15. http://www.census.gov/newsroom/facts-for-features/2014/cb14-ff22.html.