Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 10, pp 1377–1383 | Cite as

Advancing Leadership Skills: A Multiyear Examination of LEND Trainee Self-Efficacy Growth

  • Betsy P. HumphreysEmail author
  • Alan J. Kurtz
  • Carrie Portrie
  • Leslie J. Couse
  • Fatemeh Hajnaghizadeh
From the Field


Purpose The current healthcare system requires Maternal and Child Health (MCH) professionals with strong interdisciplinary leadership competence. MCH training programs utilize a conceptual framework for leadership and 12 validated MCH Leadership Competencies. Examining Trainee Perceived Leadership Competence (TPLC) through the competencies has the potential to inform our understanding of leadership development. Description Five cohorts of NH-ME leadership education in neurodevelopmental disabilities trainees (n = 102) completed the MCH Leadership Competencies Self-Assessment at three time points. Paired-sample t tests examined TPLC scores. A one-way analysis of variance tested for statistically significant differences in mean difference scores. A General Linear Model was used to examine the extent to which TPLC scores changed when controlling for specific variables. Assessment Statistically significant differences in mean scores between Time 1 and Time 3 were found. Cohen’s d effect sizes fell in the moderate range. A one-way ANOVA demonstrated significant differences between groups in the spheres of self and others. TPLC mean scores between Time 1 and Time 3 in the sphere of wider community had the highest increases in four out of five cohorts. Age, discipline, experience, and relationship to disability did not contribute to the model. Conclusion On average, cohorts began the year with very different evaluations of their leadership competence but finished the year with similar scores. This suggests participation in the NH-ME LEND Program consistently supported the development of leadership self-identity. Small sample sizes limit the ability to draw definitive conclusions from these results. Further study with a larger sample may reveal relationships between cohort characteristics and change scores.


Leadership Self-identity MCH Leadership Competencies LEND Interdisciplinary 



This research was supported in part by Grant #T73 MC00024 from the Maternal and Child Health Bureau, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Association of University Centers on Disabilities (2009). Maternal and Child Health Leadership Skills Self-Assessment. Retrieved from
  2. Athey, J. L., Kavanagh, L., & Bagley, K. (2001). The MCH Training Program: An evaluation: Executive summary. Arlington: National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84(2), 191–215.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Berwick, D. M., Nolan, T. W., & Whittington, J. (2008). The triple aim: Care, health, and cost. Health Affairs, 27(3), 759–769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Davis, D. A., Mazmanian, P. E., Fordis, M., Van Harrison, R. T. K. E., Thorpe, K. E., & Perrier, L. (2006). Accuracy of physician self-assessment compared with observed measures of competence: A systematic review. JAMA, 296(9), 1094–1102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Fernandez, C. S. P., Noble, C. C., Jensen, E., & Steffen, D. (2015). Moving the needle: A retrospective pre- and post-analysis of improving perceived abilities across 20 leadership skills. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(2), 343–352. Scholar
  7. Frenk, J., Chen, L., Bhutta, Z. A., et al. (2010). Health professionals for a new century: Transforming education to strengthen health systems in an interdependentworld. Lancet, 376(9756), 1923–1958.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Humphreys, B. P., Couse, L. J., Sonnenmeier, R. M., Kurtz, A., Russell, S. M., & Antal, P. (2014). Transforming LEND leadership training curriculum through Maternal and Child Health Leadership Competencies. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19(2), 300–307. Scholar
  9. IBM Corp. Released 2016. IBM SPSS Statistics for Mac, Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  10. Kavanagh, L., Menser, M., Pooler, J., Mathis, S., & Ramos, L. R. (2015). The MCH Training Program: Developing MCH Leaders that are equipped for the changing health care landscape. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(2), 257–264. Scholar
  11. Kavanaugh, L. (2015). Challenges and opportunities facing Maternal and Child Health (MCH) professionals. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19, 236–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Leff, S. S., Baum, K. T., Bevans, K. B., & Blum, N. J. (2015). Development, validation, and utility of instrument to assess core competencies in the Leadership Education in Neurodevelopmental and Related Disabilities (LEND) Program. Maternal & Child Health Journal, 19, 314–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lord, R. G., & Hall, R. J. (2005). Identity, deep structure and the development of leadership skill. The Leadership Quarterly, 4(16), 591–615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. MaChida, M., & Schaubroeck, J. (2011). The role of self-efficacy beliefs in leader development. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(4), 459–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Margolis, L., Rosenberg, A., & Umble, K. (2015). The relationship between interprofessional leadership education and interprofessional practice: How intensive personal leadership education makes a difference. Health and Interprofessional Practice, 2(3), 1. Scholar
  16. McCormick, M. J. (2001). Self-efficacy and leadership effectiveness: Applying social cognitive theory to leadership. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 8(1), 22–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. MCH Leadership Competencies. (2009). Washington, D. C.: US Department of Health and Human Services, 2009. Retrieved May 14, 2013 from,
  18. McHugh, M. C., Margolis, L. H., Rosenberg, A., & Humphreys, B. P. (2016). Advancing MCH interdisciplinary/interprofessional leadership training and practice through a learning collaborative. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 20(11), 2247–2253. Scholar
  19. Mouradian, W. E., & Huebner, C. E. (2007). Future directions in leadership training of MCH professionals: Cross-cutting MCH leadership competencies. Maternal Child Health Journal, 11(3), 211–218.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Olson, L. G. (2013). Public health leadership development: Factors contributing to growth. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice, 19(4), 341–347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Petersen, D. J. (2015). Leading Maternal and Child Health (MCH): Past, present and future. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(2), 244–246. Scholar
  22. Reed, V. (2009). Validating the MCH leadership competencies: Results of a modified Delphi procedure, Center for Educational Outcomes at Dartmouth.Google Scholar
  23. Rosenberg, A., Margolis, L. H., Umble, K., & Chewning, L. (2015). Fostering intentional interdisciplinary leadership in developmental disabilities: The North Carolina LEND Experience. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(2), 290–299. Scholar
  24. Sitzman, T., Ely, K., Brown, K., & Bauer, K. (2010). Self-assessment of knowledge: A cognitive learning or affective measure? Academy of Management and Learning Education, 9(2), 189–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. The output for this paper was generated using Qualtrics software, Version August 2013–August 2016 of Qualtrics. Copyright © 2017 Qualtrics. Qualtrics and all other Qualtrics product or service names are registered trademarks or trademarks of Qualtrics, Provo, UT, USA.
  26. Zimmerman, R. D., Mount, M. K., & Goff, M. (2008). Multisource feedback and leaders’ goal performance: Moderating effects of rating purpose, rater perspective and performance dimension. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 16, 121–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Betsy P. Humphreys
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alan J. Kurtz
    • 2
  • Carrie Portrie
    • 3
  • Leslie J. Couse
    • 3
  • Fatemeh Hajnaghizadeh
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute on DisabilityUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  2. 2.Center for Community Inclusion and Disability StudiesUniversity of MaineOronoUSA
  3. 3.Department of EducationUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA
  4. 4.Department of EducationUniversity of New HampshireDurhamUSA

Personalised recommendations