Dietary Diversity, Food Security, and Body Image among Women and Children on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos
- 20 Downloads
Objectives: We conducted a study of the food environment and nutritional status among women and children living on a Galapagos Island. Anthropometric and body silhouette data give insight into body size perceptions for women and their young children. We frame our findings in the context of the nutrition transition. Methods: A convenience sample was recruited via word-of-mouth for in-depth interviews and assessments of household food security, dietary intake, anthropometrics, and body image. Interviews took place in 2011 on San Cristobal Island, one of four inhabited islands in the Galapagos archipelago. Twenty women with children between the ages of one and six participated, all permanent residents of San Cristobal Island. Results: Most women (60%) reported limited availability of fresh produce due to an unreliable food supply shipped from mainland Ecuador. Despite reported food insecurity in our sample (55%), more than half of the children (55%) experienced high dietary diversity measured by 24 h recall. Women tended to report less dietary diversity than their children, which may be linked to a stated desire to be thinner. Eighty percent of children were classified as normal weight, while 75% of women were overweight or obese. Conclusions for Practice: Results provide an initial survey of the food landscape on one Galapagos Island. By combining qualitative interviews with indicators of nutritional status, the narrative data allow an interpretation of issues of food security, dietary intakes, dietary diversity, and body size. This study forms the basis for a larger examination of these issues in the Galapagos islands.
KeywordsDietary diversity Nutrition transition Food security Body size silhouettes Mother–child dyad
We would like to acknowledge the valuable support provided by the UNC Center for Galapagos Studies, the Universidad San Francisco de Quito, and the Galapagos Academic Institute for the Arts and Sciences. We would also like to thank the residents of Isla San Cristóbal for their hospitality and assistance with many aspects of this work.
B.N.H.K. and M.E.B. formulated the research questions and designed the study. B.N.H.K. carried out the study. B.N.H.K. and M.F.P. analyzed the data and wrote the article. All authors contributed to finalizing the manuscript and have approved its content.
This work was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program (B.N.H.K., Grant No. DGE-1144081) and the University of North Carolina Center for Galapagos Studies (B.N.H.K., M.E.B.; no grant number). The National Science Foundation and the Center for Galapagos Studies had no role in the design, analysis or writing of this article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
This study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures involving human subjects were approved by the institutional review boards of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Universidad San Francisco de Quito. Written informed consent was obtained from all subjects.
- Bernal, J., & Lorenzana, P. (2007). La escala de seguridad alimentaria en hogares aplicada a adolescentes en caracas: una medida valida y confiable. Agroalimentaria, 24, 47–54.Google Scholar
- Bickel, G., Nord, M., Price, C., Hamilton, W., & Cook, J. (2000). Guide to measuring household food security, Revised 2000. Alexandria: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service.Google Scholar
- Coleman-Jensen, A., Nord, M., & Singh, A. (2013). Household Food Security in the United States in 2012. Washington DC: U S. Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
- Daniels, M. C. (2006). Dietary Diversity as a measure of nutritional adequacy throughout childhood. Dissertation, Department of Nutrition at UNC Chapel Hill. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest.Google Scholar
- Dedoose Version 8.0.35, web application for managing, analyzing, and presenting qualitative and mixed method research data (2018). Los Angeles, CA: SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC http://www.dedoose.com.
- Epler, B. (2007). Tourism, the economy, population growth, and conservation in Galapagos. Charles Darwin Foundation, Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz Island. Ecuador: Galapagos Islands.Google Scholar
- FAO. (2008). Guidelines for measuring household and individual dietary diversity, version 4. Geneva: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, Nutrition and Consumer Protection Division.Google Scholar
- Hanson, K. L., Sobal, J., & Frongillo, E. A. (2007). Gender and marital status clarify associations between food insecurity and body weight. American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 1460–1465.Google Scholar
- Hernández, R., Herrera, H., Pérez, A., & Bernal, J. (2011). Estado nutricional y seguridad alimentaria del hogar en niños y jóvenes de zonas suburbanas de Caracas. Anales Venezolanos de Nutrición, 24, 21–26.Google Scholar
- Isanaka, S., Mora-Plazas, M., Lopez-Arana, S., Baylin, A., & Villamor, E. (2007). Food insecurity is highly prevalent and predicts underweight but not overweight in adults and school children from Bogotá, Colombia. American Society for Clinical Nutrition, 2747–2755.Google Scholar
- Katz, M. L., Gordon-Larsen, P., Bentley, M. E., Kelsey, K., Shields, K., & Ammerman, A. (2004). “Does skinny mean healthy?” perceived ideal, current, and healthy body sizes among African-American girls and their female caregivers. Ethnicity and Disease, 14(4), 533–541.Google Scholar
- O’Connor, M., & d’Ozouville, N. (2015). Agricultural use of pesticides on Santa Cruz. In Galapagos Report 2013–2014. GNPD, GCREG, CDF and GC (Ecuador. 30–34). Galapagos: Puerto Ayora.Google Scholar
- Rousseaud, A., Cruz, E., Naula, E., Ramos, A., Granda, M., Calvopifta, M., Leon, P., Sanchez, D., Zapata, F., Guerrero, J., Gabriel, L., & Falconi, E. (2017). Plan Galapagos: An instrument for the holistic sustainable development of the province. Galapagos Report 2015–2016. GNPD, GCREG, CDF and GC. Puerto Ayora, Galapagos, Ecuador. pp 13–19.Google Scholar
- Taylor, J. E., Hardner, J., & Stewart, M. (2006). Ecotourism and economic growth in the Galapagos: An island economy-wide analysis. Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economics. Working Paper No. 06-001.Google Scholar
- WHO Anthro version 3.2.2, software for assessing child growth percentiles and Z-scores (2011). World Health Organization http://www.who.int/childgrowth/software/en/.
- World Health Organization. Adult BMI guidelines. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html.
- World Health Organization. Child growth standards. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/en/.
- World Health Organization Global Health Observatory Data. Child malnutrition country estimates (WHO global database): Children under 5 years stunted. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.1097?lang=en.