Advertisement

The South Carolina Multigenerational Linked Birth Dataset: Developing Social Mobility Measures Across Generations to Understand Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Adverse Birth Outcomes in the US South

  • Nancy L. FleischerEmail author
  • Chelsea Abshire
  • Claire E. Margerison
  • Daniela Nitcheva
  • Michael G. Smith
Article

Abstract

Objectives To describe the creation of a multigenerational linked dataset with social mobility measures for South Carolina (SC), as an example for states in the South and other areas of the country. Methods Using unique identifiers, we linked birth certificates along the maternal line using SC birth certificate data from 1989 to 2014, and compared the subset of records for which linking was possible with two comparison groups on sociodemographic and birth outcome measures. We created four multi-generational social mobility measures using maternal education, paternal education, presence of paternal information, and a summary score incorporating the prior three measures plus payment source for births after 2004. We compared social mobility measures by race/ethnicity. Results Of the 1,366,288 singleton birth certificates in SC from 1989 to 2014, we linked 103,194, resulting in 61,229 unique three-generation units. Mothers and fathers were younger and had lower education, and low birth weight was more common, in the multigenerational linked dataset than in the two comparison groups. Based on the social mobility summary score, only 6.3% of White families were always disadvantaged, compared to 30.4% of Black families and 13.2% of Hispanic families. Moreover, 32.8% of White families were upwardly mobile and 39.1% of Black families were upwardly mobile, but only 29.9% of Hispanic families were upwardly mobile. Conclusions for Practice When states are able to link individuals, birth certificate data may be an excellent source for examining population-level relationships between social mobility and adverse birth outcomes. Due to its location in the Deep South, the multigenerational SC dataset may be particularly useful for understanding racial/ethnic difference in social mobility and birth outcomes.

Keywords

Intergenerational factors Adverse birth outcomes Life course perspective Birth certificates Social mobility 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by a Faculty Seed Grant from the University of Michigan Institute for Research on Women and Gender. We would also like to thank Alex Cao for assistance with cross-generational data linkage.

Supplementary material

10995_2018_2695_MOESM1_ESM.docx (28 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 27 KB)

References

  1. Abramovitz, M. (2006). Welfare reform in the United States: Gender, race and class matter. Critical Social Policy, 26(2), 336–364.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0261018306062589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adding Father to Birth Certificate. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.scdhec.gov/VitalRecords/PaternityAndLegitimation/.
  3. Alexander, M. (2010). The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness (Revised ed.). New York: The New Press.Google Scholar
  4. Alio, A. P., Mbah, A. K., Kornosky, J. L., Wathington, D., Marty, P. J., & Salihu, H. M. (2011). Assessing the impact of paternal involvement on racial/ethnic disparities in infant mortality rates. Journal of Community Health, 36(1), 63–68.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-010-9280-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alio, A. P., Salihu, H. M., Kornosky, J. L., Richman, A. M., & Marty, P. J. (2010). Feto-infant health and survival: Does paternal involvement matter? Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(6), 931–937.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-009-0531-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. American FactFinder 2015 ACS 5-year Selected Population Tables. (2017). Retrieved from https://factfinder.census.gov/faces/nav/jsf/pages/searchresults.xhtml?refresh=t.
  7. Astone, N. M., Misra, D., & Lynch, C. (2007). The effect of maternal socio-economic status throughout the lifespan on infant birthweight. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 21(4), 310–318.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00821.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Castrillio, S. M., Rankin, K. M., David, R. J., & Collins, J. W. (2014). Small-for-gestational age and preterm birth across generations: A population-based study of Illinois births. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(10), 2456–2464.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-014-1484-1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). 2013 NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties.Google Scholar
  10. Chapman, D. A., & Gray, G. (2014). Developing a maternally linked birth dataset to study the generational recurrence of low birthweight in Virginia. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 18(2), 488–496.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-013-1277-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chetty, R., Hendren, N., Kline, P., & Saez, E. (2014). Where is the land of opportunity? The geography of intergenerational mobility in the United States. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 129(4), 1553–1623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colen, C. G., Geronimus, A. T., Bound, J., & James, S. A. (2006). Maternal upward socioeconomic mobility and Black-White disparities in infant birthweight. American Journal of Public Health, 96(11), 2032–2039.  https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.076547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, J. W., David, R. J., Rankin, K. M., & Desireddi, J. R. (2009). Transgenerational effect of neighborhood poverty on low birth weight among African Americans in Cook County, Illinois. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(6), 712–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Collins, J. W. Jr., Rankin, K. M., & David, R. J. (2011a). African American women’s lifetime upward economic mobility and preterm birth: The effect of fetal programming. American Journal of Public Health, 101(4), 714–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Collins, J. W., Rankin, K. M., & David, R. J. (2011b). Low birth weight across generations: The effect of economic environment. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 15(4), 438–445.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-010-0603-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collins, J. W., Rankin, K. M., & David, R. J. (2015). Downward economic mobility and preterm birth: An exploratory study of Chicago-born upper class white mothers. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 19(7), 1601–1607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Current Population Survey Table Creator. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/cps/data/cpstablecreator.html.
  18. David, R., Rankin, K., Lee, K., Prachand, N., Love, C., & Collins, J. (2008). The Illinois transgenerational birth file: Life-course analysis of birth outcomes using vital records and census data over decades. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 14(1), 121–132.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-008-0433-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. David, R. J., & Collins, J. W. Jr. (1990). Bad outcomes in black babies: Race or racism? Ethnicity & disease, 1(3), 236–244.Google Scholar
  20. Dietz, P. M., England, L. J., Callaghan, W. M., Pearl, M., Wier, M. L., & Kharrazi, M. (2007). A comparison of LMP-based and ultrasound-based estimates of gestational age using linked California livebirth and prenatal screening records. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 21, 62–71.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2007.00862.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Emanuel, I., Leisenring, W., Williams, M., Kimpo, C., Estee, S., O’Brien, W., & Hale, C. (1999). The Washington State Intergenerational Study of Birth Outcomes: Methodology and some comparisons of maternal birthweight and infant birthweight and gestation in four ethnic groups. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 13(3), 352–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gaudino, J. A., Jenkins, B., & Rochat, R. W. (1999). No fathers’ names: A risk factor for infant mortality in the State of Georgia, USA. Social Science & Medicine, 48(2), 253–265.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00342-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hackman, E., Emanuel, I., Van Belle, G., & Daling, J. (1983). Maternal birth weight and subsequent pregnancy outcome. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 250(15), 2016–2019.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1983.03340150058027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ingram, D., & Franco, S. (2014). 2013 NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties. Vital and Health Statistic, 2(166), 1–73.Google Scholar
  25. Jones, C. P. (2000). Levels of racism: A theoretic framework and a gardener’s tale. American Journal of Public Health, 90(8), 1212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Klebanoff, M. A., & Yip, R. (1987). Influence of maternal birth weight on rate of fetal growth and duration of gestation. The Journal of Pediatrics, 111(2), 287–292.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(87)80089-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kleinman, J. C., & Kessel, S. S. (1987). Racial differences in low birth weight. New England Journal of Medicine, 317(12), 749–753.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lhila, A., & Long, S. R. (2012). What is driving the black-white difference in low birthweight in the US? Health Economics, 21(3), 301–315.  https://doi.org/10.1002/hec.1715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lu, M. C., & Halfon, N. (2003). Racial and ethnic disparities in birth outcomes: A life-course perspective. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 7(1), 13–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Morton, S. M., De Stavola, B. L., & Leon, D. A. (2014). Intergenerational determinants of offspring size at birth: A life course and graphical analysis using the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study (ACONF). International Journal of Epidemiology.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyu028.Google Scholar
  31. Ncube, C. N., Enquobahrie, D. A., Burke, J. G., Ye, F., Marx, J., & Albert, S. M. (2017). Transgenerational transmission of preterm birth risk: The role of race and generational socio-economic neighborhood context. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 21(8), 1616–1626.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-016-2251-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Nepomnyaschy, L. (2010). Race disparities in low birth weight in the U.S. south and the rest of the nation. Social Science & Medicine, 70(5), 684–691.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.11.013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Raley, R. K., Sweeney, M. M., & Wondra, D. (2015). The growing racial and ethnic divide in U.S. marriage patterns. The Future of Children, 25(2), 89–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Report of the Panel to Evaluate the U.S. Standard Certificates. (2000). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/dvs/panelreport_acc.pdf.
  35. Rothstein, R. (2017). The color of law: A forgotten history of how our government segregated America. New York: Liveright Publishing.Google Scholar
  36. Ruiz, R. L., Shah, M. K., Lewis, M. L., & Theall, K. P. (2014). Perceived access to health services and provider information and adverse birth outcomes: Findings from LaPRAMS, 2007–2008. Southern Medical Journal, 107(3), 137–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slaughter-Acey, J. C., Holzman, C., Calloway, D., & Tian, Y. (2015). Movin’ on up: Socioeconomic mobility and the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age infant. Maternal and Child Health Journal.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-015-1860-5.Google Scholar
  38. Tan, H., Wen, S. W., Walker, M., & Demissie, K. (2004). Missing paternal demographics: A novel indicator for identifying high risk population of adverse pregnancy outcomes. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 4(1), 21.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-4-21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. United Health Foundation. (2015). America’s health rankings: South Carolina. Retrieved from http://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/2015-annual-report/measure/Overall/state/SC.
  40. Urban and Rural Population by State, 2010. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/geo/www/ua/2010urbanruralclass.html.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Center for Social Epidemiology and Population HealthUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  2. 2.Department of EpidemiologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA
  4. 4.Division of BiostatisticsSouth Carolina Department of Health and Environmental ControlColumbiaUSA
  5. 5.Department of Health Services Management and Policy, College of Public HealthEast Tennessee State UniversityJohnson CityUSA

Personalised recommendations