Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 512–519 | Cite as

Preeclampsia and Hypertension During Pregnancy in Areas with Relatively Low Levels of Traffic Air Pollution

  • Christian MadsenEmail author
  • Siri Eldevik Håberg
  • Geir Aamodt
  • Hein Stigum
  • Per Magnus
  • Stephanie J. London
  • Wenche Nystad
  • Per Nafstad


Objectives Air pollution exposure may contribute to the development of preeclampsia and hypertension during pregnancy. However, the evidence for such a relation is still limited. We investigated the associations between exposure for moderate to low levels of air pollution during pregnancy and preeclampsia and gestational hypertension in selected urban and county areas of Norway. Methods This study used a sub-group of 17,533 women in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Air pollution levels at residential addresses were estimated using land use regression models and back-extrapolated to the period of each pregnancy. Information on preeclampsia and gestational hypertension were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway and information on lifestyle factors was collected from questionnaires completed by the women during pregnancy. Results Moderate mean levels of NO2 (13.6 ± 6.9 µg/m3) at residential address during pregnancy were not associated with preeclampsia and pregnancy hypertension. We found no statistically significant associations per 10 µg/m3 change in NO2 exposure and preeclampsia (adjusted OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.74, 1.08) or hypertension during pregnancy (adjusted OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.78, 1.06). Conclusions for Practice In this large Norwegian pregnancy cohort, we found no statistically significant associations for moderate to low levels of pregnancy NO2 exposure and preeclampsia or hypertension during pregnancy.


Air pollution NO2 Preeclampsia Pregnancy hypertension The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study 



The co-authors would like to express gratitude to all MoBa cohort participants and research team, to Sviatlana Panasevich and Jon Wickmann at NIPH for their help with the database management, and to the Norwegian Institute for Air Research team for providing valuable research data thru their national air quality database.

Author Contributions

PN, SJL, WN, PM were involved in conception, hypothesis delineation and study design. SJL, GA, SEH, CM contributed to the exposure assessment. CM and PN drafted the manuscript. All authors were involved in data interpretation and approved the final submitted version of the manuscript.


The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is supported by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education and Research, NIH/NIEHS (contract no N01-ES-75558), NIH/NIDS (grant no.1 UO1NS 047537-01 and grant no.2 UO1 NS 047537-06A1). This study was also supported by the Research Council of Norway (Grant No. 196102) and the Intramural Research Program of the NIH, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (Project Number Z01 ES49019).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethics Approval

The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study has approvals from the Regional Ethics Committee and the Norwegian Data Inspectorate. The current study is based on version VI of the quality-assured data files released for research on the 15th April 2011.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christian Madsen
    • 1
    • 3
    • 5
    Email author
  • Siri Eldevik Håberg
    • 1
  • Geir Aamodt
    • 2
  • Hein Stigum
    • 1
    • 3
  • Per Magnus
    • 1
  • Stephanie J. London
    • 4
  • Wenche Nystad
    • 1
  • Per Nafstad
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Domain for Mental and Physical HealthNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Landscape Architecture and Spatial PlanningNorwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway
  3. 3.Department of Community Medicine and Global Health, Medical FacultyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Environmental Health SciencesNational Institutes of HealthResearch Triangle ParkUSA
  5. 5.Department of Health and Inequality, Domain for Mental and Physical HealthNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway

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