The Impact of Perinatal Depression on Children’s Social-Emotional Development: A Longitudinal Study
- 2.2k Downloads
Objectives This longitudinal population study aimed to investigate if maternal depression at different time points during the perinatal period impacts children’s social-emotional development at 2 years of age. Methods Participants were women (n = 1235) who gave birth at Akershus University Hospital in Norway. Maternal depressive symptoms were assessed by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at pregnancy week 32 and at 8 weeks and 2 years postpartum, whereas children’s social-emotional development at the age of 2 years was assessed by using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional. Bi- and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the linkage between maternal perinatal depression and children’s early social-emotional development. Results Multivariate analyses showed that social-emotional problems in the child 2 years after birth were strongly associated with maternal depression at pregnancy week 32 (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 3.4; 95 % CI 1.4–8.0), depression at 8 weeks postpartum (aOR 3.8; 95 % CI 1.7–8.6), and with depression at both time points (aOR 3.7; 95 % CI 1.5–10.1). Conclusion Findings indicate pre- and postnatal depression each bears an independent, adverse impact on children’s social-emotional development.
KeywordsPerinatal depression Onset timing Ages and Stages Questionnaire Social-emotional development
The Akershus Birth Cohort study was funded by the Research Council of Norway, Project Number 191098.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Cox, J., & Holden, J. (2003). Perinatal mental health: A guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). London: Royal College of Psychiatrists.Google Scholar
- Dalgard, O. S., Dowrick, C., Lehtinen, V., Vazquez-Barquero, J. L., Casey, P., Wilkinson, G., et al. (2006). Negative life events, social support and gender difference in depression: A multinational community survey with data from the ODIN study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(6), 444–451.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Delgado-Rodríguez M., & Llorca J.(2004). Bias. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 58(8),635-641.Google Scholar
- Garthus-Niegel, S., von Soest, T., Knoph, C., Simonsen, T. B., Torgersen, L., & Eberhard-Gran, M. (2014). The influence of women’s preferences and actual mode of delivery on post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth: a population-based, longitudinal study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 14, 191.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Monk, C., Sloan, R. P., Myers, M. M., Ellman, L., Werner, E., Jeon, J., et al. (2004). Fetal heart rate reactivity differs by women’s psychiatric status: An early marker for developmental risk? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(3), 283–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Norwegian Institute of Public Health. (2009). Medical Birth Registry of Norway. http://mfr-nesstar.uib.no/mfr/. Accessed 15 November 2015.
- Pearson, R. M., Evans, J., Kounali, D., Lewis, G., Heron, J., Ramchandani, P. G., et al. (2013). Maternal depression during pregnancy and the postnatal period: Risks and possible mechanisms for offspring depression at age 18 years. JAMA Psychiatry, 70(12), 1312–1319.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Squires, J. B., Bricker, D., & Twombly, E. (2002). The ASQ:SE User’s Guide for the Ages & Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional. A Parent-Completed, Child-Monitoring System for Social-Emotional Behaviors. Baltimore: Paul H Brookes Pub Co.Google Scholar