Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 1091–1101 | Cite as

mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women

  • JiWon Choi
  • Ji hyeon Lee
  • Eric Vittinghoff
  • Yoshimi Fukuoka


Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707.


Physical activity Pregnancy Mobile health 



This study was supported by the National Heart, Lung, Blood Institution (3R01HL104147-02S1) from the National Institutes of Health (NIH); the National Institutes of Health (NIH), through UCSF-CTSI Grant Number UL1 RR024131. The contents of this publication are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the NIH. We also thank Victoria Phan, BS, Joelle Takahashi, BA, Stephen Weinstein, MD, Joanne Vogel, MD, and the MoTHER Study participants.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest


Supplementary material

10995_2015_1895_MOESM1_ESM.doc (218 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 217 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • JiWon Choi
    • 1
  • Ji hyeon Lee
    • 2
  • Eric Vittinghoff
    • 3
  • Yoshimi Fukuoka
    • 4
  1. 1.Institute for Health and Aging/Department of Social and Behavioral SciencesUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biobehavioral SciencesTeachers College, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of Epidemiology and BiostatisticsUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physiological Nursing/Institute for Health & AgingUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

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