Brief Online Self-help Exercises for Postnatal Women to Improve Mood: A Pilot Study
- 505 Downloads
Giving birth and adjusting to a new baby can be difficult and stressful for new mothers. Negative mood may occur during this time and can affect women, their parenting and the infant’s development. This pilot study evaluated a brief online self-help intervention designed to promote positive mood in mothers of babies and toddlers.
Women in the UK who had given birth within the previous 18 months were randomly allocated to the online self-help intervention (n = 40) or active comparison group exercise (n = 40) which was matched for time and structure. Mood was measured before and after the intervention. Acceptability was examined at the end of the trial.
The self-help intervention was acceptable to the majority of women and significantly increased positive mood compared to the comparison condition. This effect persisted after controlling for self-esteem, anxiety and depression. These results suggest that a simple self-help intervention focused on changing beliefs about oneself as a mother can have an immediate impact on women’s mood.
Conclusions for Practice
Further research is need to see whether these improvements continue long-term and what processes underlie these improvements.
KeywordsSelf-help Intervention Postnatal Mood Motherhood
- 1.Ayers, S., & Ford, E. (2009). Birth trauma: Widening our knowledge of postnatal mental health. The European Health Psychologist, 11, 16–19.Google Scholar
- 2.Elder, A., & Holmes, J. (2006). Mental health in primary care. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 7.Hogg, S. (2013). Prevention in mind. All babies count: Spotlight on perinatal mental health. London: Park Communications.Google Scholar
- 10.Semple, D., Smyth, R., Burns, J., Darjee, R., & McIntosh, A. (2005). Oxford handbook of psychiatry. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- 11.Power, M. J., Dalgleish, T., Claudio, V., Tata, P., & Kentish, J. (2000). The directed forgetting task: Application to emotionally valent material. Journal of affective disorders, 57(1-3), 147–57. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10708826.
- 14.Olander, E. K., Fletcher, H., Williams, S., Atkinson, L., Turner, A., & French, D. P. (2013). What are the most effective techniques in changing obese individuals’ physical activity, self-efficacy and behaviour: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-29.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 15.NICE. (2014). CG192: Antenatal and postnatal mental health: Clinical management and service guidance. http://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg192/resources/guidance-antenatal-and-postnatal-mental-health-clinical-management-and-service-guidance-pdf.
- 16.Hans, E., & Hiller, W. (2013). Effectiveness of and dropout from outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for adult unipolar depression: A meta-analysis of nonrandomized effectiveness studies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 81(1), 75–88. doi: 10.1037/a0031080.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 17.Peeters, F., Huibers, M., Roelofs, J., van Breukelen, G., Hollon, S. D., Markowitz, J. C., & Arntz, A. (2013). The clinical effectiveness of evidence-based interventions for depression: A pragmatic trial in routine practice. Journal of Affective Disorders, 145(3), 349–355. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2012.08.022.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.McMurchie, W., MacLeod, F., Power, K., Laidlaw, K., & Prentice, N. (2013). Computerised cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression with older people: A pilot study to examine patient acceptability and treatment outcome. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(11), 1147–1156. doi: 10.1002/gps.3935.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Richardson, T., Stallard, P., & Velleman, S. (2010). Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for the prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents: A systematic review. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 13(3), 275–290. doi: 10.1007/s10567-010-0069-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 22.Proudfoot, J., Ryden, C., Everitt, B., Shapiro, D. A., Goldbert, D., Mann, A., & Gray, J. A. (2004). Clinical efficacy of competerized cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety and depression in primary care: Randomised control trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 185, 46–54. doi: 10.1192/bjp.185.1.46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 24.O’Mahen, H. A., Woodford, J., McGinley, J., Warren, F. C., Richards, D. A., Lynch, T. R., & Taylor, R. S. (2013). Internet-based behavioral activation—treatment for postnatal depression (Netmums): A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150(3), 814–822. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.03.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 27.Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, N.J.: University Press.Google Scholar
- 28.Centre for Clinical Interventions. (2013). Unhelpful thinking styles. Retrieved 10, 2013 from http://www.cci.health.wa.gov.au/docs/ACFE1D0.pdf.
- 29.Gilbert, P. (2009). Overcoming depression: A self-help guide using cognitive behavioural therapy techniques (Vol. 3rd). London: Constable & Robinson.Google Scholar
- 30.Greenberger, D., & Padesky, C. A. (1995). Mind over mood. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- 31.Bourne, E. J. (1997). The anxiety and phobia workbook. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.Google Scholar
- 32.Mind Tools. (2010). Time management training. Retrieved January 20, 2010, from http://www.mindtools.com/pages/main/newMN_HTE.htm.
- 34.So, M., Yamaguchi, S., Hashimoto, S., Sado, M., Furukawa, T. A., & McCrone, P. (2013). Is computerised CBT really helpful for adult depression? A meta-analytic re-evaluation of CCBT for adult depression in terms of clinical implementation and methodological validity. BMC Psychiatry. doi: 10.1186/1471-244X-13-113.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 35.Bauer, A., Parsonage, M., Knapp, M., Iemmi, V., & Adelaja, B. (2014). The costs of perinatal mental health problems. London: Centre for Mental Health.Google Scholar