Advertisement

Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 917–925 | Cite as

Developmental Trajectories of Postpartum Weight 3 Years After Birth: Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

  • Dawit S. Abebe
  • Tilmann Von Soest
  • Ann Von Holle
  • Stephanie C. Zerwas
  • Leila Torgersen
  • Cynthia M. Bulik
Article

Abstract

This study explored the developmental trajectories of postpartum weight from 0.5 to 3 years after childbirth, and aimed to determine the associations between postpartum weight trajectories and prepregnancy body mass index and adequacy of gestational weight gain (GWG). Data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort study were used, following 49,528 mothers 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years after childbirth. Analyses were performed using latent growth mixture modeling. Three groups of developmental trajectories of postpartum weight were found, with most women (85.9 %) having a low level of weight retention initially and slight gain over 3 years, whereas 5.6 % of women started at a high postpartum weight retention (on average 7.56 kg) at 0.5 years but followed by a marked weight loss over time (2.63 kg per year on average), and the third trajectory represented women (8.5 %) who had high weight retention high initially (on average 4.67 kg at 0.5 years) and increasing weight over time (1.43 kg per year on average). Prepregnancy overweight and obesity and excessive GWG significantly predicted a high postpartum weight trend. Women had substantial variability in postpartum weight development—both initially after birth and in their weight trajectories over time. Early preventive interventions may be designed to assist women with prepregnancy overweight and obesity and excessive GWG, which helps to reduce the increasing trend for postpartum weight.

Keywords

Postpartum weight MoBa Developmental trajectory Prepregnancy BMI Gestational weight gain 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We are grateful to all the participating families in Norway who take part in this ongoing cohort study. This research analysis was funded by the Research Council of Norway (Grant No. 196226V50). Dr. Zerwas is supported by the CTSA (UL1RR025747), the NIH Building Interdisciplinary Careers in Women’s Health Award (K12-HD01441), and K01MH100435. MoBa was funded by Norwegian Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education and Research, NIH/NIEHS (Contract No. N01-ES-75558) and NIH/NINDS (Grant No. 1 UO1 NS 047537-01 and Grant No. 2 UO1 NS 047537-06A1).

Conflict of interest

Dr. Bulik is a consultant for Shire Pharmaceuticals and an author for Walker Books and Pearson.

References

  1. 1.
    Davis, E. M., Stange, K. C., & Horwitz, R. I. (2012). Childbearing, stress and obesity disparities in women: A public health perspective. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 16(1), 109–118.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Siega-Riz, A. M., Evenson, K. R., & Dole, N. (2004). Pregnancy-related weight gain—A link to obesity? Nutrition Reviews, 62(7 Pt 2), S105–S111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Linne, Y., Dye, L., Barkeling, B., et al. (2003). Weight development over time in parous women—The SPAWN study—15 years follow-up. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27(12), 1516–1522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schmitt, N. M., Nicholson, W. K., & Schmitt, J. (2007). The association of pregnancy and the development of obesity—Results of a systematic review and meta-analysis on the natural history of postpartum weight retention. International Journal of Obesity, 31(11), 1642–1651.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gore, S. A., Brown, D. M., & West, D. S. (2003). The role of postpartum weight retention in obesity among women: A review of the evidence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 26(2), 149–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Linne, Y., Barkeling, B., & Rossner, S. (2002). Long-term weight development after pregnancy. Obesity Reviews, 3(2), 75–83.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gunderson, E. P. (2009). Childbearing and obesity in women: Weight before, during, and after pregnancy. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 36(2), 317–332.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Linne, Y., Dye, L., Barkeling, B., et al. (2004). Long-term weight development in women: A 15-year follow-up of the effects of pregnancy. Obesity Research, 12(7), 1166–1178.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nehring, I., Schmoll, S., Beyerlein, A., et al. (2011). Gestational weight gain and long-term postpartum weight retention: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 94(5), 1225–1231.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mamun, A. A., Kinarivala, M., O’Callaghan, M. J., et al. (2010). Associations of excess weight gain during pregnancy with long-term maternal overweight and obesity: Evidence from 21 y postpartum follow-up. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(5), 1336–1341.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Magnus, P., Irgens, L. M., Haug, K., et al. (2006). Cohort profile: The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). International Journal of Epidemiology, 35(5), 1146–1150.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nilsen, R. M., Vollset, S. E., Gjessing, H. K., et al. (2009). Self-selection and bias in a large prospective pregnancy cohort in Norway. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 23(6), 597–608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Webb, J. B., Siega-Riz, A. M., & Dole, N. (2009). Psychosocial determinants of adequacy of gestational weight gain. Obesity (Silver Spring), 17(2), 300–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bodnar, L. M., Siega-Riz, A. M., Simhan, H. N., et al. (2010). Severe obesity, gestational weight gain, and adverse birth outcomes. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 91(6), 1642–1648.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perrin, E. M., Von Holle, A., Zerwas, S., et al. (2014). Weight-for-length trajectories in the first year of life in children of mothers with eating disorders in a large Norwegian cohort. International Journal of Eating Disorders. doi: 10.1002/eat.22290.PubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Irgens, L., Bergsjø, P., & Lie, R. (2000). The Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Epidemiological research and surveillance throughout 30 years. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 79, 435–439.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Muthén, B. (2004). Latent variable analysis: Growth mixture modeling and related techniques for longitudinal data. In D. Kaplan (Ed.), Handbook of quantitative methodology for the social sciences (pp. 345–368). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2010). Mixture modeling with longitudinal data. Mplus User’s Guide (pp. 197–232). Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nylund, K. L., Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2007). Deciding on the number of classes in latent class analysis and growth mixture modeling: A Monte Carlo simulation study. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(4), 535–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Siega-Riz, A. M., Herring, A. H., Carrier, K., et al. (2010). Sociodemographic, perinatal, behavioral, and psychosocial predictors of weight retention at 3 and 12 months postpartum. Obesity, 18(10), 1996–2003.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Meyer, H. E., & Tverdal, A. (2005). Development of body weight in the Norwegian population. Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids, 73(1), 3–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ng, M., Fleming, T., Robinson, M., et al. (2014). Global, regional, and national prevalence of overweight and obesity in children and adults during 1980-2013: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. doi: 10.1016/s0140-6736(14),60460-8.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Olson, C. M., Strawderman, M. S., Hinton, P. S., et al. (2003). Gestational weight gain and postpartum behaviors associated with weight change from early pregnancy to 1 y postpartum. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 27(1), 117–127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pedersen, P., Baker, J. L., Henriksen, T. B., et al. (2011). Influence of psychosocial factors on postpartum weight retention. Obesity, 19(3), 639–646.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rooney, B. L., Schauberger, C. W., & Mathiason, M. A. (2005). Impact of perinatal weight change on long-term obesity and obesity-related illnesses. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 106(6), 1349–1356.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Krause, K. M., Lovelady, C. A., Peterson, B. L., et al. (2010). Effect of breast-feeding on weight retention at 3 and 6 months postpartum: Data from the North Carolina WIC Programme. Public Health Nutrition, 13(12), 2019–2026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ostbye, T., Krause, K. M., Swamy, G. K., et al. (2010). Effect of breastfeeding on weight retention from one pregnancy to the next: Results from the North Carolina WIC program. Preventive Medicine, 51(5), 368–372.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    IOM, NRC. (2009). Weight gain during pregnancy: Reexamining the guidelines. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Spencer, E. A., Appleby, P. N., Davey, G. K., et al. (2002). Validity of self-reported height and weight in 4808 EPIC-Oxford participants. Public Health Nutrition, 5(4), 561–565.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dawit S. Abebe
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tilmann Von Soest
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ann Von Holle
    • 2
  • Stephanie C. Zerwas
    • 2
  • Leila Torgersen
    • 3
  • Cynthia M. Bulik
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Norwegian Social Research (NOVA)OsloNorway
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Division of Mental HealthNorwegian Institute of Public HealthOsloNorway
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of OsloOsloNorway
  5. 5.Department of NutritionUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel HillUSA
  6. 6.Department of Medical Epidemiology and BiostatisticsKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations