The Relation of a Woman’s Impaired in Utero Growth and Association of Diabetes During Pregnancy
Small for gestational age (weight for gestational age <10th percentile, SGA) birth status and adulthood susceptibility to diabetes is well established, but the relationship to diabetes during pregnancy is incompletely understood. The authors investigated the association between women’s impaired fetal growth (as measured by SGA status) and diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy. Stratified and multivariable binomial regression analyses were performed on the Illinois transgenerational dataset. Former SGA (n = 13,934) mothers had a greater prevalence of DM during pregnancy than former appropriate for gestational age (AGA) mothers (n = 116,683): 2.7 versus 1.9 %, relative prevalence (RP) equaled 1.4 [95 % confidence interval (CI)1.3, 1.6]. In a multivariable binomial regression model, the adjusted RP (95 %CI) (controlling for maternal age, education, parity, plurality, marital status, and race/ethnicity) for DM during pregnancy for former SGA (compared to AGA) mothers equaled 1.5 (1.3, 1.6). When stratified by race/ethnicity, the adjusted RP (95 % CI) of DM during pregnancy for former SGA (compared to AGA), non-Latina White, African-American, and Mexican-American mothers was 1.4 (1.3, 1.6), 1.6 (1.2, 2.1), and 2.3 (1.1, 4.7), respectively. The authors conclude that impaired fetal growth (as measured by SGA status) is a risk factor for DM during pregnancy among the leading racial/ethnic groups in the United States.
KeywordsSGA Low birth weight Pregnancy Diabetes mellitus
This study was funded by a research Grant from the March of Dimes (12-FY09-159, to J.W.C).
- 8.Harris, M. I., Flegal, K. M., Cowie, C. C., Eberhardt, M. S., Goldstein, D. E., Little, R. R., et al. (1998). Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose, and impaired glucose tolerance in U.S. adults. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Diabetes Care, 21, 518–524.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 9.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1998). Diabetes during pregnancy—United States, 1993–1995. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 47, 408–414.Google Scholar
- 19.SAS institute Inc. (2000–2004). SAS 9.1.3 SAS/STAT. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.Google Scholar
- 22.Williams, M. A., Emanuel, I., Kimpo, C., Leisenring, W. M., & Hale, C. B. (1999). A population-based cohort study of the relation between maternal birthweight and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in four racial/ethnic groups. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 13, 452–465.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 28.Soto, N., Bazaes, R. A., Pena, V., Salazar, T., Avila, A., Iniguez, G., et al. (2003). Insulin sensitivity and secretion are related to catch-up growth in small-for-gestational-age infants at age 1 year: Results from a prospective cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab, 88, 3645–3650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar