Gestational Weight Gain, Early Pregnancy Maternal Adiposity Distribution, and Maternal Hyperglycemia
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To estimate the effects of gestational weight gain (GWG), central adiposity and subcutaneous fat on maternal post-load glucose concentration, pregnant women [n = 413, 62 % black, 57 % with pregravid body mass index (BMI) ≥25] enrolled in a cohort study at ≤13 weeks gestation. GWG was abstracted from medical records. In a sub-sample of women (n = 214), waist circumference (WC), and biceps and triceps skinfold thicknesses were measured at enrollment. At 24–28 weeks gestation, post-load glucose concentration was measured using a 50-g 1-h oral glucose tolerance test. After adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI, age, parity, race/ethnicity, smoking, marital status, annual family income, education, family history of diabetes, and gestational age of GDM screening, each 0.3-kg/week increase in weight in the first trimester was associated with a 2.2 (95 % CI 0.1, 4.3)-mg/dl increase in glucose concentration. Each 8.6-mm increase in biceps skinfold thickness and each 11.7-mm increase in triceps skinfold thickness was associated with 4.3 (95 % CI 0.2, 8.5)-mg/dl increase in maternal glucose, independent of BMI and other confounders. Neither GWG in the second trimester nor WC at ≤13 weeks was significantly associated with glucose concentration after confounder adjustment. Independent of pre-pregnancy BMI, high early pregnancy GWG and maternal subcutaneous body fat may be positively associated with maternal glucose concentrations at 24–28 weeks.
KeywordsGestational weight gain Skinfold thickness Pregnancy Glucose Gestational diabetes
This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health NIH Grant R01 HD052732 (PI: Simhan) and the Reproductive, Perinatal and Pediatric Epidemiology Grant HD 055 162-03 NIH NRSA T32 (NICHD).
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