Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 829–838 | Cite as

Descriptive Epidemiology of Chronic Hypertension, Gestational Hypertension, and Preeclampsia in New York State, 1995–2004

  • David A. Savitz
  • Valery A. Danilack
  • Stephanie M. Engel
  • Beth Elston
  • Heather S. Lipkind


We examined social, demographic, and behavioral predictors of specific forms of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in New York State. Administrative data on 2.3 million births over the period 1995–2004 were available for New York State, USA, with linkage to birth certificate data for New York City (964,071 births). ICD-9 hospital discharge diagnosis codes were used to assign hypertensive disorders hierarchically as chronic hypertension, chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia, preeclampsia (eclampsia/severe or mild), or gestational hypertension. Sociodemographic and behavioral predictors of these outcomes were examined separately for upstate New York and New York City by calculating adjusted odds ratios. The most commonly diagnosed conditions were preeclampsia (2.57 % of upstate New York births, 3.68 % of New York City births) and gestational hypertension (2.46 % of upstate births, 1.42 % of New York City births). Chronic hypertension was much rarer. Relative to non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanics in New York City and Black women in all regions had markedly increased risks for all hypertensive disorders, whereas Asian women were at consistently decreased risk. Pregnancy-associated conditions decreased markedly with parity and modestly among smokers. A strong positive association was found between pre-pregnancy weight and risk of hypertensive disorders, with slightly weaker associations among Blacks and stronger associations among Asians. While patterns of chronic and pregnancy-induced hypertensive disorders differed, the predictors of gestational hypertension and both mild and severe preeclampsia were similar to one another. The increased risk for Black and some Hispanic women warrants clinical consideration, and the markedly increased risk with greater pre-pregnancy weight suggests an opportunity for primary prevention among all ethnic groups.


Chronic hypertension Gestational hypertension Preeclampsia 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • David A. Savitz
    • 1
  • Valery A. Danilack
    • 1
  • Stephanie M. Engel
    • 2
  • Beth Elston
    • 1
  • Heather S. Lipkind
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public HealthBrown UniversityProvidenceUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public HealthUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  3. 3.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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