Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 119–128 | Cite as

Characteristics of Fathers with Depressive Symptoms

  • David G. Rosenthal
  • Nicole Learned
  • Ying-Hua Liu
  • Michael Weitzman


Extensive research shows maternal depression to be associated with poorer child outcomes, and characteristics of these mothers have been described. Recent research describes associations of paternal depressive symptoms and child behavioral and emotional outcomes, but characteristics of these fathers have not been investigated. This study describes characteristics of fathers with depressive symptoms in the USA. Utilizing data from 7,247 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5–17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004–2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems, and the Children with Special Health Care Needs Screener was used to identify children with special health care needs. In multivariate analyses, poverty (AOR 1.52; 95% CI 1.05–2.22), maternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.77; 95% CI 4.18–7.95), living with a child with special health care needs (AOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.04–1.94), poor paternal physical health (AOR 3.31; 95% CI 2.50–4.38) and paternal unemployment (AOR 6.49; 95% CI 4.12–10.22) were independently associated with increased rates of paternal depressive symptoms. These are the first data that demonstrate that poverty, paternal physical health problems, having a child with special health care needs, maternal depressive symptoms, and paternal unemployment are independently associated with paternal depressive symptoms, with paternal unemployment associated with the highest rates of such problems.


Paternal depressive symptoms Child behavior Child emotional problems 



Adjusted odds ratio


Medical Expenditure Panel Survey


Confidence interval


Composite International Diagnostic Interview


Columbia Impairment Scale


Children with special health care needs


Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders IV


Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal


Mental component score


National Health Interview Survey


Physical Component Scale


Patient Health Questionnaire-2


Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders


Short-Form 12


Conflict of interest

None of the authors have any financial conflicts to disclose.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • David G. Rosenthal
    • 3
  • Nicole Learned
    • 3
  • Ying-Hua Liu
    • 1
  • Michael Weitzman
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PediatricsNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryNew York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.New York University School of MedicineNew YorkUSA

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