Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1188–1196

Reasons for the Increasing Hispanic Infant Mortality Rate: Florida, 2004–2007

  • Erin K. Sauber-Schatz
  • William Sappenfield
  • Leticia Hernandez
  • Karen M. Freeman
  • Wanda Barfield
  • Diana M. Bensyl
Article
  • 242 Downloads

Abstract

Assess whether the 55% increase in Florida’s Hispanic infant mortality rate (HIMR) during 2004–2007 was real or artifactual. Using linked data from Florida resident live births and infant deaths for 2004–2007, we calculated traditional (infant Hispanic ethnicity from death certificates and maternal Hispanic ethnicity from birth certificates) and nontraditional (infant and maternal Hispanic ethnicity from birth certificate maternal ethnicity) HIMRs. We assessed trends in HIMRs (per 1,000 live births) using Chi-square statistics. We tested agreement in Hispanic ethnicity after implementation of a revised 2005 death certificate by using kappa statistics and used logistic regression to test the associations of infant mortality risk factors. Hispanic was defined as being of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central/South American, or other/unknown Hispanic origin. During 2004–2007 traditional HIMR increased 55%, from 4.0 to 6.2 (Chi-square, P < 0.001) and nontraditional HIMR increased 20%, from 4.5 to 5.4 (Chi-square, P = 0.03). During 2004–2005, agreement in Hispanic ethnicity did not change with use of the revised certificate (kappa = 0.70 in 2004; kappa = 0.76 in 2005). Birth weight was the most significant risk factor for trends in Hispanic infant mortality (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.10–1.61). Differences in Hispanic reporting on revised death certificates likely accounted for the majority of traditional HIMR increase, indicating a primarily artifactual increase. Reasons for the 20% increase in nontraditional HIMR during 2004–2007 should be further explored through other individual and community factors. Use of nontraditional HIMRs, which use a consistent source of Hispanic classification, should be considered.

Keywords

Infant mortality Hispanic Americans Florida Birth certificates Death certificates 

References

  1. 1.
    MacDorman, M. F., & Mathews, T. J. (2008). Recent trends in infant mortality in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics Data Brief. No. 9. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db09.pdf. Accessed January 10, 2011.
  2. 2.
    Reidpath, D. D., & Allotey, P. (2003). Infant mortality rate as an indicator of population health. Journal Epidemiology Community Health, 57, 344–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xu, J., Kochanek, K. D., Murphy S. L., & Tejada-Vera, B. (2010). Deaths: Final data for 2007. National vital statistics reports (Vol. 58, No. 19). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2011). Healthy people 2020: Topics & objectives, maternal, infant, and child health. Available at: http://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/objectiveslist.aspx?topicid=26. Accessed January 10, 2011.
  5. 5.
    Florida Department of Health. (2011). Florida community health assessment resource tool set (CHARTS) charts: Maternal & child health-infant mortality (0364 days from birth). Available at: http://www.floridacharts.com/charts/report.aspx?domain=03&IndNumber=0053. Accessed January 10, 2011.
  6. 6.
    MacDorman, M. F., & Mathews, T. J. (2011). Infant deaths—United States, 2000–2007. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 60(01), 49–51.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Markides, K. S., & Coreil, J. (1986). The health of Hispanics in the southwestern United States: An epidemiologic paradox. Public Health Reports, 101(3), 253–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hummer, R. A., Powers, D. A., Pullum, S. G., Gossman, G. L., & Frisbie, W. P. (2007). Paradox found (again): Infant mortality among the Mexican-origin population in the United States. Demography, 44(3), 441–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Becerra, J. E., Hogue, C. J. R., Atrash, H. K., & Perez, N. (1991). Infant mortality among hispanics A portrait of heterogeneity. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 265(2), 217–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacDorman, M. F., & Mathews, T. J. (2009). The challenge of infant mortality: Have we reached a plateau? Public Health Reports, 124(Sept–Oct), 670–681.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Farley, D. O., Richards, T., & Bell, R. M. (1995). Effects of reporting methods on infant mortality rate estimates for racial and ethnic subgroups. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 6(1), 60–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rosenberg, H. M., Maurer, J. D., Sorlie, P. D., Johnson, N. J., MacDorman, M. F., Hoyert, D. L., et al. (1999). Quality of death rates by race and Hispanic origin: A summary of current research, Vital and Health Statistics. Series 2, (128), 1–13.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zollinger, T. W., Przybylski, M. J., & Gamache, R. E. (2006). Reliability of Indiana birth certificate data compared to medical records. Annals of Epidemiology, 16(1), 1–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eschbach, K., Kuo, Y., & Goodwin, J. S. (2006). Ascertainment of hispanic ethnicity on California death certificates: Implications for the explanation of the Hispanic mortality advantage. American Journal of Public Health, 96(12), 2209–2215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Arias, E., Schauman, W. S., Eschbach, K., Sorlie, P, D., & Backlund, E. (2008). The validity of race and hispanic origin reporting on death certificates in the United States. Vital and Health Statistics. Series 2, (148), 1–23.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Trevino, F. M. (1982). Vital and health statistics for the US Hispanic population. American Journal of Public Health, 72(9), 979–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Arias, E., Eschbach, K., Schauman, W. S., Backlund, E. L., & Sorlie, P. D. (2010). The hispanic mortality advantage and ethnic misclassification on US death certificates. American Journal of Public Health, 100(S1), S171–S177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petrini, J., Damus, K., Roy, S., Johnson, K., & Johnston, R. B. (1998). The effect of using “race of child” instead of “race of mother” on the black-white gap in infant mortality due to birth defects. Public Health Reports, 113, 263–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA)  2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erin K. Sauber-Schatz
    • 1
    • 2
  • William Sappenfield
    • 1
  • Leticia Hernandez
    • 1
  • Karen M. Freeman
    • 3
  • Wanda Barfield
    • 4
  • Diana M. Bensyl
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of Family Health Services, MCH Practice and Analysis UnitFlorida Department of HealthTallahasseeUSA
  2. 2.EIS Field Assignments Branch, Scientific Education and Professional Development Program Office, Office of Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory ServicesCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Bureau of Community Health AssessmentFlorida Department of HealthTallahasseeUSA
  4. 4.Division of Reproductive HealthCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations