Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 16, Issue 6, pp 1224–1231

Characteristics and Factors Associated with the Risk of a Nicotine Exposed Pregnancy: Expanding the CHOICES Preconception Counseling Model to Tobacco

  • Danielle E. Parrish
  • Kirk von Sternberg
  • Mary M. Velasquez
  • Jerry Cochran
  • McClain Sampson
  • Patricia Dolan Mullen


The preconception counseling model tested in the CDC funded Project CHOICES efficacy trial to reduce the risk of an alcohol-exposed pregnancy (AEP) could be extended to smokers to prevent a nicotine-exposed pregnancy (NEP), when pharmacotherapy can be provided safely and disclosure of these risk behaviors is more likely. The CHOICES model, which incorporates motivational interviewing, encourages reduction of AEP risk by decreasing risky drinking or using effective contraception; in the efficacy trial, most women chose both options. We conducted a secondary analysis of the CHOICES epidemiologic survey data (N = 2,672) (Project CHOICES Research Group in Am J Prev Med 23(3), 166–173, 2002) to identify the prevalence of risk of NEP and the factors associated with this risk using logistic regression modeling procedures. Conducted in six settings with women at risk for AEP, the percentage of AEP was 12.5% (333/2,672) among women of childbearing age (18–44). A total of 464 of the 2,672 (17.4%) were at risk for NEP. Among women at-risk of an unplanned pregnancy (n = 1,532), the co-occurrence of AEP and NEP risk was more prevalent (16.3%) than AEP risk alone (5.5%) or NEP risk alone (14.0%). In the multivariable model, statistically significant correlates for NEP risk included lifetime drug use, prior alcohol/drug treatment, drug use in the last 6 months, being married or living with a partner, having multiple sexual partners in the last 6 months, physical abuse in the last year, and lower levels of education. These findings suggest that preconception counseling for NEP could be combined with a program targeting AEP.


Nicotine Pregnancy Alcohol Preconception Prevention 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Danielle E. Parrish
    • 1
    • 3
  • Kirk von Sternberg
    • 1
  • Mary M. Velasquez
    • 1
  • Jerry Cochran
    • 1
  • McClain Sampson
    • 1
  • Patricia Dolan Mullen
    • 2
  1. 1.Health Behavior Research and Training InstituteUniversity of Texas at Austin, School of Social WorkAustinUSA
  2. 2.Center for Health Promotion and Prevention ResearchUniversity of Texas School of Public Health (Houston)HoustonUSA
  3. 3.Graduate College of Social WorkUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA

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