Postpartum Depression Prevalence and Impact on Infant Health, Weight, and Sleep in Low-Income and Ethnic Minority Women and Infants
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of maternal depressive symptoms at 5 and 9 months postpartum in a low-income and predominantly Hispanic sample, and evaluate the impact on infant weight gain, physical health, and sleep at 9 months. Participants included 132 low-income mother-infant pairs who participated in a larger investigation on prenatal care utilization. Mothers were interviewed in person 24–48 h after birth and by phone at 5 and 9 months postpartum. Clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms were reported in 33% of the women at 5 months postpartum, and 38% at 9 months postpartum. Higher depressive symptoms at 5 months were associated with less infant weight gain from 5 to 9 months, p = .002, increased infant physical health concerns, p = .05, and increased infant nighttime awakenings at 9 months, p = .001. Results suggest a striking prevalence of clinically significant depressive symptoms through 9 months postpartum in this very low income, largely ethnic minority sample. Further, the effects of postpartum depression include significant ramifications for infant physical health.
KeywordsPostpartum depression Body weight Infant Sleep
This research was funded by the Maricopa County Department of Public Health, St. Joseph’s Hospital, and the Arizona Department of Health Services. Preparation of the manuscript was supported by NIMH training grant T32MH018387. We are grateful for the input and assistance from members of the Alliance for Innovations in Health Care, and to Dr. Craig Enders for his assistance with the analyses for this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors of this manuscript have no potential conflicts of interests, including financial interests or gains.
- 1.CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). Maternal and infant health. September 1, 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/MaternalInfantHealth/. Accessed 1 October 2009.
- 3.CDC: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2009). PRAMS and postpartum depression. May 6, 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/prams/PPD.htm. Accessed 1 October 2009.
- 4.Ramierz, R. R., & de la Cruz, G. P. (2002). The Hispanic population in the United States: March 2002. Current population reports (pp. 20–545). Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
- 27.Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., et al. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
- 28.Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar