Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 677–683

Effect of Components of a Workplace Lactation Program on Breastfeeding Duration Among Employees of a Public-Sector Employer

  • Jane A. Johnston Balkam
  • Karin Cadwell
  • Sara B. Fein
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the individual services offered via a workplace lactation program of one large public-sector employer on the duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding was defined as exclusive feeding of human milk for the milk feeding. A cross-sectional mailed survey approach was used. The sample (n = 128) consisted of women who had used at least one component of the lactation program in the past 3 years and who were still employed at the same organization when data were collected. Descriptive statistics included frequency distributions and contingency table analysis. Chi-square analysis was used for comparison of groups, and both analysis of variance (ANOVA) and univariate analysis of variance from a general linear model were used for comparison of means. The survey respondents were primarily older, white, married, well-educated, high-income women. More of the women who received each lactation program service were exclusively breastfeeding at 6 months of infant age in all categories of services, with significant differences in the categories of telephone support and return to work consultation. After adjusting for race and work status, logistic regression analysis showed the number of services received was positively related to exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months and participation in a return to work consultation was positively related to any breastfeeding at 6 months. The study demonstrated that the workplace lactation program had a positive impact on duration of breastfeeding for the women who participated. Participation in the telephone support and return to work consultation services, and the total number of services used were related to longer duration of exclusive and/or any breastfeeding.

Keywords

Breastfeeding Breastfeeding duration Workplace lactation program Public-sector employer 

References

  1. 1.
    Lindberg, L. D. (1996). Women’s decisions about breastfeeding and maternal employment. Journal of Marriage and Family, 58(1), 239–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Greiner, T. (1999). Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding may depend on the extent to which mothers of young children are employed. Acta Paediatrica, 88(12), 1311–1312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Roe, B., Whittington, L. A., Fein, S. B., & Teisl, M. F. (1999). Is there competition between breast-feeding and maternal employment? Demography. May, 36(2), 157–171.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vogel, A., Hutchison, B. L., & Mitchell, E. A. (1999). Factors associated with the duration of breastfeeding. Acta Paediatrica, 88(12), 1320–1326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wright, A. L. (2001). The rise of breastfeeding in the United States. Pediaticr Clinics of North America, 48(1), 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bovell-Benjamin, A. C., Benjamin, W., Ivey, M., & Simeon, D. T. (2001). Breastfeeding knowledge and beliefs among adults in Eastern Tobago. Journal of Human Lactation, 17(4), 298–303.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Novotny, R., Hla, M. M., Kieffer, E. C., Park, C. B., Mor, J., & Thiele, M. (2000). Breastfeeding duration in a multiethnic population in Hawaii. Birth, 27(2), 91–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bentley, M. E., Dee, D. L., & Jensen, J. (2003). Breastfeeding among low income, African-American women: Power, beliefs and decision making. The Journal of Nutrition, 133, 305S–309S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    McLeod, D., Pullon, S., & Cookson, T. (2002). Factors Influencing continuation of breastfeeding in a cohort of women. Journal of Human Lactation, 18(4), 335–342.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yinyam, S., & Morrow, M. (1999). Breastfeeding practices among employed Thai women in Chiang Mai. Journal of Human Lactation, 15(3), 225–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Auerbach, K. G., & Guss, E. (1984). Maternal employment and breastfeeding: A study of 567 women’s experience. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 138(10), 958–960.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Taveras, E. M., Capra, A. M., Braveman, P. A., Jensvold, N. G., Escobar, G. J., & Lieu, T. A. (2003). Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Pediatrics, 112(1), 108–115.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). HHS blueprint for action on breastfeeding. Washington, DC: U. S. Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Breastfeeding among U.S. children born 1999–2006, CDC National Immunization Survey. (2010). U.S. centers for disease control and prevention. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/breastfeeding/data/NIS_data/index.htm. Accessed March 18, 2010.
  15. 15.
    American Academy of Pediatrics. (2005). Breastfeeding and the use of human milk. Pediatrics, 115(2), 496–506.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bar-Yam, N. B. (1998). Workplace lactation support, part II: Working with the workplace. Journal of Human Lactation, 14(4), 321–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bar-Yam, N. B. (2004). Nursing mothers at work: Corporate and maternal strategies to support lactation in the workplace. Journal of the Association for Research on Mothering, 6(2), 127–138 (Fall/Winter).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Society for Human Resource Management. (2009). Employee benefits: Examining employee benefits in a fiscally challenging economy (pp. 1–84). Alexandria, VA: Society for Human Resource Management.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Cohen, R., & Mrtek, M. (1994). The impact of two corporate lactation programs on the incidence and duration of breastfeeding by employed mothers. American Journal of Health Promotion, 8(6), 436–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cohen, R., Mrtek, M., & Mrtek, R. G. (1995). Comparison of maternal absenteeism and infant illness rates among breast-feeding and formula-feeding women in two corporations. American Journal of Health Promotion, 10(2), 148–153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Cohen, R., Lange, L., & Slusser, W. (2002). A description of a male-focused breastfeeding promotion corporate lactation program. Journal of Human Lactation, 18(1), 61–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stokamer, C. L. (2002, August). Helping new mothers maintain lactation. Federal Practitioner, 10–19.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wyatt, S. N. (2002). Challenges of the working breastfeeding mother: Workplace solutions. AAOHN Journal, 50(2), 61–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Whaley, S. E., Meehan, K., Lange, L., Slusser, W., & Jenks, E. (2002). Predictors of breastfeeding duration for employees of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(9), 1290–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ortiz, J., McGilligan, K., & Kelly, P. (2004). Duration of breast milk expression among working mothers enrolled in an employer-sponsored lactation program. Pediatric Nursing, 30(2), 111–119.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Slusser, W. M., Lange, L., Dickson, V., Hawkes, C., & Cohen, R. (2004). Breast milk expression in the workplace: A look at frequency and time. Journal of Human Lactation, 20(2), 164–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Li, R., Scanlon, K. S., & Serdula, M. K. (2005). The validity and reliability of maternal recall of breastfeeding practice. Nutrition Reviews, 63(4), 103–110.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Fein, S. B., Labiner-Wolfe, J., Shealy, K. R., Li, R., Chen, J., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2008). Infant feeding practices study II: Study methods. Pediatrics, 122(Suppl 2), S28–S35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chatterji, P., & Frick, K. (2003). Does returning to work after childbirth affect breastfeeding practices. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dodgson, J. E., Chee, Y.-O., & Yap, T. S. (2004). Workplace breastfeeding support for hospital employees. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 47(1), 91–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fein, S. B., & Roe, B. (1998). The effect of work status on initiation and duration of breastfeeding. American Journal of Public Health, 88(7), 1042–1046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dennis, C. L. (2002). Breastfeeding initiation and duration: A 1990–2000 literature review. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological, & Neonatal Nursing, 31(1), 12–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Li, R., Darling, N., Maurice, E., Barder, L., & Grummer-Strawn, L. M. (2005). Breastfeeding rates in the United States by characteristics of the child, mother, or family: The 2002 National Immunization Survey. Pediatrics, 115(1), 31–37.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Fein, S. B., Mandal, B., & Roe, B. (2008). Success of strategies for combining employment and breastfeeding. Pediatrics, 122, S56–S62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Johnston, M. L., & Esposito, N. (2007). Barriers and facilitators for breastfeeding among working women in the United States. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecological & Neonatal Nursing, 36(1), 9–20.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Porteous, R., Kaufman, K., & Rush, J. (2000). The effect of individualized professional support on duration of breastfeeding: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Human Lactation, 16(4), 303–308.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., Frick, K. D., Spatz, D., & Bronner, Y. (2002). Breastfeeding duration, costs, and benefits of a support program for low-income breastfeeding women. Birth, 29(2), 95–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pugh, L. C., Milligan, R. A., & Brown, L. P. (2001). The breastfeeding support team for low-income, predominantly-minority women: A pilot intervention study. Health Care for Women International, 22, 501–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    U. S. Preventive Services Task Force. (2003). Behavioral interventions to promote breastfeeding. U. S. Preventive Services Task Force [website]. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/3rduspstf/brstfeed/brfeedrr.htm. Accessed 08/06/2003.

Copyright information

© US Government 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jane A. Johnston Balkam
    • 1
  • Karin Cadwell
    • 2
  • Sara B. Fein
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Notre Dame of MarylandBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Healthy Children ProjectEast SandwichUSA
  3. 3.Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug AdministrationWashingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations