Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 557–566

An Ecological Approach to Understanding Black–White Disparities in Perinatal Mortality

  • Amina P. Alio
  • Alice R. Richman
  • Heather B. Clayton
  • Delores F. Jeffers
  • Deanna J. Wathington
  • Hamisu M. Salihu


Despite appreciable improvement in the overall reduction of infant mortality in the United States, black infants are twice as likely to die within the first year of life as white infants, even after controlling for socioeconomic factors. There is consensus in the literature that a complex web of factors contributes to racial health disparities. This paper presents these factors utilizing the socioecological framework to underscore the importance of their interaction and its impact on birth outcomes of Black women. Based on a review of evidence-based research on Black–White disparities in infant mortality, we describe in this paper a missing potent ingredient in the application of the ecological model to understanding Black–White disparities in infant mortality: the historical context of the Black woman in the United States. The ecological model suggests that birth outcomes are impacted by maternal and family characteristics, which are in turn strongly influenced by the larger community and society. In addition to infant, maternal, family, community and societal characteristics, we present research linking racism to negative birth outcomes and describe how it permeates and is embedded in every aspect of the lives of African American women. Understanding the contribution of history to the various factors of life of Black women in the United States will aid in developing more effective policies and programs to reduce Black infant mortality.


Racial disparities Birth outcomes Perinatal mortality Ecological model Historical context of racism 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amina P. Alio
    • 1
  • Alice R. Richman
    • 1
  • Heather B. Clayton
    • 2
  • Delores F. Jeffers
    • 2
  • Deanna J. Wathington
    • 3
  • Hamisu M. Salihu
    • 4
  1. 1.Community and Family Health Department, College of Public HealthUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.The Lawton and Rhea Chiles Center for Healthy Mothers and BabiesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.College of MedicineUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  4. 4.Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, College of Public HealthUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA

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