Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 149–154 | Cite as

Adverse Perinatal Outcomes of Adolescent Pregnancies in Cameroon

  • Eugene Justine Kongnyuy
  • Philip N. Nana
  • Nelson Fomulu
  • Shey Charles Wiysonge
  • Luc Kouam
  • Anderson S. Doh
Article

Abstract

Background

There are geographic variations in fetal outcomes of adolescent pregnancies because of socio-economic differences between regions and countries. The aim of our study was to determine adverse fetal outcomes associated with adolescent pregnancies in Cameroon.

Methods

A cross-sectional study to compare the outcomes of 268 singleton, adolescent pregnancies with 832 controls, delivered in four referral hospitals in Yaounde (Cameroon), between November 2004 and April 2005.

Results

The adverse fetal outcomes related to adolescent pregnancies were low birth weight (<2,500 g) (odds ratios [OR], 1.71; confidence interval [CI], 1.15–2.50), premature babies (<37 weeks) (OR, 1.77; CI, 1.24–2.52) and early neonatal death (OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04–4.48). The rates of stillbirth and intrauterine growth retardation were not significantly higher among adolescents. Adverse maternal outcome associated with adolescent pregnancies were eclampsia (OR, 3.18; CI, 1.21–8.32), preeclampsia (OR, 1.99; CI, 1.24–3.15), perineal tear (OR, 1.45; CI, 1.06–1.99) and episiotomy (OR, 1.82; CI, 1.20–2.73). Caesarean delivery, instrumental delivery and premature rupture of membranes were not significantly associated with adolescent pregnancy. Maternal factors associated with adverse fetal outcome in adolescents were maternal age, number of prenatal visits <4, and the state of being unemployed.

Conclusion

Adolescent pregnancies are associated with both adverse fetal and maternal outcomes in Cameroon. Improving compliance with prenatal care could significantly reduce the frequency of adverse fetal outcomes in adolescent populations in Cameroon.

Keywords

Adolescent pregnancy Adverse perinatal outcomes Prematurity Low birth weight Early neonatal death 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We wish to thank the entire staff of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of the four teaching hospitals in Yaounde for the collaboration given us during the data collection phase of the study. Competing interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

References

  1. 1.
    Tebeu, P. M., Kouam, L., Tantchou, J., Wamba, T. M., Ngassa, P., Obama, A. M. T., et al. (2002). Devenir de l’acouchement chez les adolescents de 16ans et moins: 10 année d’expérience au CHU - Yaounde. Cameroon Journal of Medicine, 11(1), 31.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Nasah, B. T., & Rouin, P. (1982). Care of the mother in the tropics (1st ed.) (pp. 141–142). Yaounde: CEPER.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Robson, S., Cameron, C. A., & Roberts, C. L. (2006). Birth outcomes for teenage women in New South Wales, 1998–2003. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 46, 305–310.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Frazer, A. M., Brockert, J. E., & Ward, R. H. (1995). Association of young maternal age with adverse reproductive outcomes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 332, 1113–1117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    McArney, E. R., & Hendee, W. R. (1989). Adolescent pregnancy and its consequences. JAMA, 262, 74–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elster, A. (1984). The effect of maternal age, parity and prenatal care on perinatal outcome in adolescent mothers. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 149, 845–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Isaranurug, S., Mo-Suwan, L., & Choprapawon, C. (2006). Differences in socio-economic status, service utilization, and pregnancy outcomes between teenage and adult mothers. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 89, 145–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Magadi, M. (2006). Poor pregnancy outcomes among adolescents in South Nyanza region of Kenya. African Journal of Reproductive Health, 10, 26–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amini, S. B., Catalano, P. M., & Mann, L. I. (1996). Effect of prenatal care on obstetrical outcome. The Journal of Maternal Fetal Medicine, 5(3), 142–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Leke R. J. I. (1998). Reproductive health of adolescents in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: B. Kuate (Ed.), Sexuality and reproductive health during Adolescence in Africa (1st ed.) (pp 255–279). Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press. Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    WHO (1995). Expert committee report. Physical status: The use and interpretation of anthropometry. Technical Report Series 854. Geneva: World Health Organisation.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berne, L., & Huberman, B. (1999). In: S. Alford (Ed.) Setting the stage: Adolescent sexual health indicators in the United States, Netherlands, Germany and France: European approaches to adolescent sexual behavior and responsibility (pp. 1–9). Washington, DC: Advocates of Youth. Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bukulmez, O., & Deren, O. (2000). Perinatal outcome in adolescent pregnancies: A case-control study from a Turkish university hospital. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynaecology, and Reproductive Biology, 88, 207–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Eure, C. R., Lindsay, M. K., & Graves, W. (2002). Risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes in young adolescent paturients in an inner-city hospital. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 186, 918–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Safid, B. A., Catalano, P. M., Dierker, I. J., & Mann, L. I. (1996). Birth to teenagers. Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 87, 668–689.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chandra, P. C., Schiavello, H. J., Ravi, B., Weinstein A. G., & Hook F. B. (2002). Pregnancy outcomes in urban teenagers. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, 79, 117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mabie W. C., & Sibai B. M. (1994). Hypertensive states of pregnancy. In: Current obstetric and gynecologic diagnosis and treatment (8th ed.) (pp 380–397). London: Prentice-Hall International, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hediger, M. I., Scholl, T. O., Schall, J. I., & Krueger, P. M. (1997). Young maternal age and preterm labor. Annals of Epidemiology, 7, 400–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yoder, B. A., & Young, M. K. (1997). Neonatal outcomes of teenage pregnancies in military population. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 90, 500–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugene Justine Kongnyuy
    • 1
  • Philip N. Nana
    • 2
  • Nelson Fomulu
    • 2
  • Shey Charles Wiysonge
    • 3
  • Luc Kouam
    • 2
  • Anderson S. Doh
    • 2
  1. 1.Child and Reproductive Health GroupLiverpool School of Tropical MedicineLiverpoolUK
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical SciencesUniversity of Yaounde IYaoundeCameroon
  3. 3.South African Cochrane Centre, South African Medical Research CouncilCape TownSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations