Maternal and Child Health Journal

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 235–245 | Cite as

Adapting Smoking Relapse–Prevention Materials for Pregnant and Postpartum Women: Formative Research

  • Gwendolyn QuinnEmail author
  • Bethany Bell Ellison
  • Cathy Meade
  • C. Nannette Roach
  • Elena Lopez
  • Terrance Albrecht
  • Thomas H. Brandon

Objective: To decrease smoking relapse among pregnant and postpartum women by adapting existing, validated relapse–prevention materials to meet the unique needs of pregnant and postpartum women. Methods: A series of semi-structured interviews and learner verification activities were conducted with pregnant abstinent, postpartum abstinent, and postpartum relapsed women. Results were used to create new relapse–prevention materials, specific to the needs of pregnant and postpartum women, which are currently being used in a randomized clinical trial. Results: Findings are consistent with the recurrent themes in the literature regarding smoking cessation among pregnant and postpartum women and revealed exceptional needs for coping and stress reduction strategies related to remaining abstinent postpartum. Conflict levels were also high in areas of identity, social support, and reasons for quitting. Conclusion: By interviewing women about their cessation related needs, the current study was able to produce smoking relapse–prevention materials specific to this population. Having pregnant and postpartum women review the modified program materials before starting the clinical trial enhanced the quality, dependability, and validity of the materials. We await the results of the clinical trial to determine if this intervention is indeed more efficacious than previous attempts to intervene with this population.


smoking relapse–prevention smoking cessation pregnant postpartum formative research 



The research reported here was supported by National Cancer Institute Grant RO1 CA 94256. A copy of the Forever Free for Baby and Me booklets may be requested from Thomas Brandon at


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gwendolyn Quinn
    • 1
    • 7
    Email author
  • Bethany Bell Ellison
    • 2
  • Cathy Meade
    • 1
  • C. Nannette Roach
    • 3
  • Elena Lopez
    • 4
  • Terrance Albrecht
    • 5
  • Thomas H. Brandon
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Interdisciplinary OncologyUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA
  2. 2.Department of Community and Family HealthUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.Mahaska Health PartnershipOskaloosaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South Florida, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research InstituteTampaUSA
  5. 5.Communication and Behavioral OncologyBarbara Ann Karmanos Cancer InstituteDetroitUSA
  6. 6.Departments of Psychology and Interdisciplinary OncologyUniversity of South Florida, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research InstituteTampaUSA
  7. 7.Department of Interdisciplinary OncologyUniversity of South Florida College of MedicineTampaUSA

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