Machine Learning

, Volume 108, Issue 7, pp 1085–1110 | Cite as

Semi-supervised online structure learning for composite event recognition

  • Evangelos MichelioudakisEmail author
  • Alexander Artikis
  • Georgios Paliouras
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Special Issue of the Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) 2017-2018


Online structure learning approaches, such as those stemming from statistical relational learning, enable the discovery of complex relations in noisy data streams. However, these methods assume the existence of fully-labelled training data, which is unrealistic for most real-world applications. We present a novel approach for completing the supervision of a semi-supervised structure learning task. We incorporate graph-cut minimisation, a technique that derives labels for unlabelled data, based on their distance to their labelled counterparts. In order to adapt graph-cut minimisation to first order logic, we employ a suitable structural distance for measuring the distance between sets of logical atoms. The labelling process is achieved online (single-pass) by means of a caching mechanism and the Hoeffding bound, a statistical tool to approximate globally-optimal decisions from locally-optimal ones. We evaluate our approach on the task of composite event recognition by using a benchmark dataset for human activity recognition, as well as a real dataset for maritime monitoring. The evaluation suggests that our approach can effectively complete the missing labels and eventually, improve the accuracy of the underlying structure learning system.


Semi-supervised learning Online structure learning Graph-cut minimisation First-order logic distance Event Calculus Event recognition 



The work has been funded by the EU H2020 project datAcron (687591). We would also like to thank Nikos Katzouris for providing assistance on the distance functions for first-order logic and helping us running OLED.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Informatics and TelecommunicationsNational and Kapodistrian University of AthensAthensGreece
  2. 2.Department of Maritime StudiesUniversity of PiraeusPiraeusGreece
  3. 3.Institute of Informatics and TelecommunicationsNational Center for Scientific Research “Demokritos”AthensGreece

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