Moving globally to transform locally? Academic mobility and language policy in Brazil
- 564 Downloads
This paper discusses academic mobility in Brazil over the past few years due to the increase in governmental initiatives to promote internationalization of higher education and student mobility. The aim is to address the challenges faced by the international academic mobility program Science without Borders (SwB) to boost the development of science, technology and innovation in the country. To live to this expectation, SwB fosters foreign language learning as a key element to the program’s success. Known as the most expensive investment ever made in the country towards funding international mobility in higher education at the undergraduate level, Brazil is aiming high in the program. Whether or not the SwB generation will fulfill the task to transform science, technology and innovation in the country in the years to come is one of the questions raised by the study. Drawing on an analyses of qualitative data with undergraduate students, participants in the SwB program from 2011 to 2014, the paper discusses three important dimensions of the international mobility: (1) the contribution at educational and professional levels; (2) the contribution at a personal and subjective level; and (3) the importance of foreign language acquisition to broader education. The results support the argument that the SwB generation has developed, as its most salient aspect, a differential self-perspective after undergoing mobility and stress the importance of a more inclusive, multilingual language policy for the country.
KeywordsAcademic mobility Science without borders Language policy Foreign language learning
Professor Jean Marc Dewaele, Birkbeck College, London, UK Professor Ofelia Garcia, City University of New York, USA.
- Altbach, P. G. (2004). Globalization and the university: Myths and realities in an unequal world. In National Education Association (Ed.), The NEA 2005 almanac of higher education (pp. 63–74). Washington, DC: National Education Association.Google Scholar
- Altbach, P. G. (2013). The international imperative in higher education. In Global perspectives on higher education, vol. 27. Center for International Higher Education, Boston College, Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
- Blommaert, J., & Backus, A. (2011). Repertoires revisited: ‘knowing language’ in superdiversity. Working Papers in Urban Language and Literacies. Paper 67. London: Tilburg University and King’s College.Google Scholar
- Blommaert, J., & Rampton, B. (2011). Language and superdiversity. Diversities, 13(2), 2079–6595.Google Scholar
- Carlaw, K., Oxley, L., Walker, P., Thorns, D., & Nuth, M. (2012). Beyond the hype. Property and the knowledge society/knowledge economy. In D. W. Livingstone & D. Guile (Eds.), The knowledge economy and lifelong learning: A critical reader (pp. 7–42). Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Castells, M. (1996). The information age: Economy, society and culture Vol. I: The rise of the network society. Cambridge, MA/Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
- CoE (2009). Official journal of the european union. Council conclusions of 12 May 2009 on a strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training. C 119/02.Google Scholar
- Cresswell, T. (2006). On the move. Mobility in the Modern Western World: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Fahey, J., & Kenway, J. (2010). International academic mobility: Problematic and possible paradigms. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(5), 563–575.Google Scholar
- Finardi, K. (2014). The slaughter of Kachru’s five sacred cows in Brazil: Affordances of the use of english as an international language. Studies in English Language Teaching, 2(4). ISSN 2372-9740 (Print) ISSN 2329-311X (Online). www.scholink.org/ojs/index.php/selt.
- Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Stanford, CT: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Gil, G. (2009). O ensino do Inglês, do português e do espanhol como línguas estrangeiras no Brasil e na Argentina: uma comparação glotopolítica. Revista HELB. Ano 3, No 3-1. ISSN 1981 6677.Google Scholar
- Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of english as a foreign language. London: The British Council.Google Scholar
- Hall, S. (2008). (Org.) Da diáspora: Identidades e mediações culturais. Liv Sovik; Adelaine La Guardia Resende et al. (Trad.). Belo Horizonte: Editora UFMG.Google Scholar
- Heller, M., & Duchêne, A. (Eds.) (2012). Language in late capitalism. Pride and Profit: Routledge Critical Studies in Multilingualism.Google Scholar
- Heller, M., & Martin-Jones, M. (2001). Introduction: Symbolic domination, education, and linguistic difference. In M. Heller & M. Martin-Jones (Eds.), Voices of authority: Education and linguistic difference. Westport, Connecticut: Ablex.Google Scholar
- Holborow, M. (2012). What is neoliberalism? Discourse, ideology and the real world. In D. Block, J. Gray, & M. Holborow (Eds.), Neoliberalism and applied linguistics. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kachru, B. B. (1986). The alchemy of English: The spread, function, and models in nonnative English. Oxford: Oxford University Press/Illini Press.Google Scholar
- Kim, T. (2010). Transnational academic mobility, knowledge, and identity capital. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 31(5), 577–591.Google Scholar
- Makoni, S., & Pennycook, A. (2006). Disinventing and reconstituting languages. In S. Makoni & A. Pennycook (Eds.), Disinventing and reconstituting languages (pp. 1–41). Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
- May, S. (2014). Disciplinary divides, knowledge construction, and the multilingual turn. In S. May (Ed.), The multilingual turn. Implications for SLA, TESOL and bilingual education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Mazzaro, D., & Amaral, E. T. R. (2007). Repercussões da Lei n.° 11.161/2005: Reflexões sobre o ensino de espanhol no Brasil. Língua e Literatura Journal. Universidade Federal do Triângulo Mineiro, 2(2), 1–6.Google Scholar
- Mufwene, S. S. (2010). Globalization, global english and world english(es): Myths and facts. In N. Coupland (Ed.), Blackwell handbooks in linguistics: The handbook of language and globalization. Oxford, United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
- OECD (2013). Education indicators in focus. http://www.oecd.org/education/skills-beyond-school/EDIF%202013--N%C2%B014%20(eng)-Final.pdf.
- Pennycook, A. (2010). Language as local practice. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Robertson, S. L. (2010). Critical response to Special Section: International academic mobility. Discourse, 31(5), 641–647.Google Scholar
- Spolsky, B. (2004). Language policy. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Tollefson, J. W. (2015). Language education policy in late modernity: Insights from situated approaches—commentary. Language Policy. doi: 10.1007/s10993-014-9353-8.
- Wilson, R., & Dewaele, J. M. (2010). The use of web questionnaires in second language acquisition and bilingualism research. Second Language Research, 26, 103–123.Google Scholar
- Xiang, B. (2007). A new mobility regime in the making: What does a mobile China mean to the world. In: Idées pour le débat, N 10. Global Governance. Paris: Institut du développement durable et des relations internationales.Google Scholar