Development of Avian Avulavirus 1 Epitope-Based Vaccine Pattern Based on Epitope Prediction and Molecular Docking Analysis: An Immunoinformatic Approach

  • Vafa Mayahi
  • Majid EsmaelizadEmail author
  • Mohamad Reza Ganjalikhany


Fusion (F) and Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) glycoproteins of Newcastle disease virus containing important epitopes play crucial role in stimulation of humoral and cell-mediated immunity of the host. In the present study we analyzed and compared genetic diversity of F and HN sequences related to long-term circulating sub-genotype VIIj isolates to genotype VII and II strains. In addition, F and HN epitope prediction was performed using IEDB, NetMHC 4.0 and NetMHC II 3.1 servers. Molecular docking analysis was also conducted for VIIj and LaSota isolates interacting MHC I and II molecules. Results indicated that certain specific mutations were occurred in Fusion and Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase proteins of VIIj sub-genotype. Epitope prediction study revealed that the unique variations were located on the antigenic site regions of F and HN glycoproteins. Furthermore, docking interaction analysis showed surprising results, in which defined antigenic site residues of VIIj isolates interacted to MHC molecules with higher affinity levels rather than LaSota strains used as vaccines. Our in silico results suggest that by applying certain epitope sequences inducing both immune responses, vaccination failures may be reduced and challenged vaccinated host cells may stop viral shedding beside protection from Newcastle disease infection. Thus, we recommend the introduced antigenic sites of VIIj sub-genotype in this paper would act as the great targets for epitope-based vaccine design in the region.


Immunoinformatics Fusion Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase Epitope-based vaccine Avian AvulavirusMolecular docking 



This study was supported by Grant No. 2-18-18-94129 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vafa Mayahi
    • 1
  • Majid Esmaelizad
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mohamad Reza Ganjalikhany
    • 2
  1. 1.Central Laboratory DepartmentRazi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO)KarajIran
  2. 2.Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biological Science and TechnologyUniversity of IsfahanIsfahanIran

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