Development of Vaccine Prototype Against Zika Virus Disease of Peptide-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity


Zika virus has recently evolved from an obscure mosquito-borne pathogen to an international public health concern. People with Zika virus disease can have indications including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle pain, malaise or headache. Effective vaccines are needed for controlling and preventing the disease. In the current study, we aim to design the substructure for vaccine against Zika virus by forming antigenic peptide epitope of the disease. Zika peptide loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles have been fabricated in the present work as a potential artificial vaccine. UV and FT-IR Spectrophotometers and ZetaSizer were used for studying the nanoparticles, and Scanning Electron Microscope was used for morphological examination. The nanoparticles (NPs) yield, encapsulation efficiency, the peptide loading capacity were determined and in vitro release of the peptide was studied. Cytotoxic effects of the various concentrations of Zika peptide, blank PLGA nanoparticles and Zika peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles on ECV304 human epithelial cells were determined via MTT assay. The present paper could be considered as one of the important steps in the use of nanoparticles for constructing the new generation of vaccination systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. Allahyari M, Mohit E (2016) Peptide/protein vaccine delivery system based on PLGA particles. Hum Vaccine Immunother 12:806–828

  2. Arasoglu T, Derman S, Mansuroglu B (2016) Comparative evaluation of antibacterial activity of caffeic acid phenethyl ester and PLGA nanoparticle formulation by different methods. Nanotechnology 27:025103.

  3. Arayici PP, Acar T, Maharramov AM, Karahan M, Mustafaeva ZA (2017) Synthesis and characterization of bioconjugates of antigenic rabies virus peptide epitope with polyacrylic acid. Fresen Environ Bull 26:2752–2758

  4. Brito C (2016) Zika virus: a new chapter in the history of medicine. Acta Med Port 28:679–680

  5. Can F, Arayici-Pelit P, Karahan M, Mustafaeva Z, Mamedov B (2016) The current approaches to Zika virus vaccination. Biotechnol Acta 9:7–13.

  6. Cook S, Holmes E (2006) A multigene analysis of the phylogenetic relationships among the flaviviruses (Family: Flaviviridae) and the evolution of vector transmission. Arch Virol 151:309–325.

  7. Derman S, Kızılbey K, Akdeste ZM (2013) Polymeric nanoparticles. Sigma J Eng Nat Sci 31:107–120

  8. Derman S, Kizilbey K, Mansuroglu B, Mustafaeva Z (2014) Synthesis and characterization of canine parvovirus (CPV) VP2 W-7L-20 synthetic peptide for synthetic vaccine. Fresen Environ Bull 23:558–566

  9. Derman S, Mustafaeva ZA, Abamor ES, Bagirova M, Allahverdiyev A (2015) Preparation, characterization and immunological evaluation: canine parvovirus synthetic peptide loaded PLGA nanoparticles. J Biomed Sci 22:89

  10. Dick G (1952) Zika virus (II). Pathogenicity and physical properties. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 46:521–534

  11. Feczkó T, Tóth J, Dósa G, Gyenis J (2011) Optimization of protein encapsulation in PLGA nanoparticles. Chem Eng Process 50:757–765

  12. Gatherer D, Kohl A (2016) Zika virus: a previously slow pandemic spreads rapidly through the Americas. J Gen Virol 97:269–273.

  13. Hughes RA, Cornblath DR (2005) Guillain-barre syndrome. The Lancet 366:1653–1666.

  14. Karahan M (2017) Antigenic peptide synthesis and characterization of Q fever disease. AKU-J Sci Eng 17:312–317.

  15. Kuno G, Chang G-J (2007) Full-length sequencing and genomic characterization of Bagaza, Kedougou, and Zika viruses. Arch Virol 152:687–696

  16. Kuno G, Chang G-JJ, Tsuchiya KR, Karabatsos N, Cropp CB (1998) Phylogeny of the genus Flavivirus. J Virol 72:73–83

  17. Ma W et al (2012) PLGA nanoparticle-mediated delivery of tumor antigenic peptides elicits effective immune responses. Int J Nanomed 7:1475–1487

  18. Miller JC, Serrato R, Represas-Cardenas JM, Kundahl G (2004) The handbook of nanotechnology: business, policy, and intellectual property law. Wiley, Hoboken

  19. Mustafaeva Z (2016) polymers in vaccine formulation. Sigma J Eng Nat Sci 34:439–451

  20. Mustafaeva Z (2017) Synthesis and characterization of poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) microparticles loaded with foot-and-mouth disease virus 40–60 synthetic peptide. Biotechnol Acta 10:52–60.

  21. Owens DE, Peppas NA (2006) Opsonization, biodistribution, and pharmacokinetics of polymeric nanoparticles. Int J Pharm 307:93–102

  22. Panyam J, Labhasetwar V (2003) Biodegradable nanoparticles for drug and gene delivery to cells and tissue. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 55:329–347

  23. Poland GA, Kennedy RB, Ovsyannikova IG, Palacios R, Ho PL, J K (2018) Development of vaccines against Zika virus. Lancet Infect Dis 18:e211–e219.

  24. Rao CNR, Müller A, Cheetham AK (2005) The chemistry of nanomaterials, vol 1. Wiley, Hoboken

  25. Rodriguez-Morales AJ, Bandeira AC, Franco-Paredes C (2016) The expanding spectrum of modes of transmission of Zika virus: a global concern. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob 15:13.

  26. Sümer Z (2011) Immunological basis of vaccination. Turkiye Klinikleri J Fam Med 2:19–22

  27. Vandervoort J, Ludwig A (2001) Preparation factors affecting the properties of polylactide nanoparticles: a factorial design study. Pharmazie 56:484–488

  28. WHO (2017) Zika virus. Accessed 10 May 2017

  29. Yilmaz E, Arayici P, Maharramov A, Mustafaeva Z (2016) Approaches to designing of new generation vaccines against the sheep pox disease. Biotechnol Acta 9:7–15.

  30. Yin Y, Chen D, Qiao M, Lu Z, Hu H (2006) Preparation and evaluation of lectin-conjugated PLGA nanoparticles for oral delivery of thymopentin. J Control Release 116:337–345

  31. Yu Y et al (2017) A peptide-based viral inactivator inhibits Zika virus infection in pregnant mice and fetuses. Nat Commun 8:15672

Download references


The authors wish to thank the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for its support and contribution as part of the 2209-A University Student Domestic Research Projects Support Program.

Author information

Correspondence to Mesut Karahan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

All author declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Research Involving Animal and Human Participants

This article does not contain any study with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Çalman, F., Pelit Arayıcı, P., Büyükbayraktar, H.K. et al. Development of Vaccine Prototype Against Zika Virus Disease of Peptide-Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Cytotoxicity. Int J Pept Res Ther 25, 1057–1063 (2019).

Download citation


  • Nanoparticles
  • Peptide
  • PLGA
  • Vaccine
  • Zika virus
  • Cytotoxicity