A Study on Phytochemicals from Medicinal Plants Against Multidrug Resistant Streptococcus mutans
- 14 Downloads
Microbial drug resistance is creating severe problems worldwide. Medicinal important plants are a rich source of phytochemicals. These active compounds have antimicrobial and anticancer properties. Over a period of years, various plants based active compounds and its active principles have been analyzed for phytochemicals with antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans but this study was conducted on phytochemicals against multi-drug resistant S. mutans from dental plaque samples. Identification and isolation of S. mutans from dental plaque was done by using standard tests like Gram staining, phenol red test and blood agar hemolysis. Sensitivity/resistance pattern was done by antimicrobial sensitivity test by Kirby–Bauer disc diffusion test. Phytochemical extraction from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) seed (MFS) and leaves (MFL), cloves (Syzigium aromaticam), Punica granatum fruit peel (PGP), Morus alba L. plant type I (MLP I) and M. alba L. plant type II leaves (MLP II) were done using solvent maceration with methanol, ethanol and water. Extracts were tested for antimicrobial properties against multidrug resistant S. mutans using antibiotic sensitivity test by agar well diffusion method and then were subjected for screening and identification of active phytochemical groups by chemical tests and high performance thin layer chromatography. The confirmatory analysis of the active compounds was done by using chromatography techniques: HPLC and GCMS. In the screening of medicinal plants clove bud, nutmeg seed and pomegranate peel showed effective antimicrobial activity against MDR S. mutans. The minimum inhibitory concentration for pomegranate peel was found to be 20 mg/ml, for clove 10 mg/ml and for Myristica seed 15 mg/ml.
KeywordsMedicinal plants Phytochemicals Maceration Chromatography Eugenol
We acknowledge Dr. Pratima Murthy and Dr. Vivek Benegal, HODs of The Centre for Addiction Medicine, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore for extended support for the use of facility at Drug Toxicology Laboratory.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
An approval was obtained from Ethical committee for the study.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Akharaiyi FC, Boboye B, Adetuyi FC (2012) Antibacterial, phytochemical and antioxidant activities of the leaf extracts of Gliricidia sepium and Spathodea campanulata. World Appl Sci J 16(4):523–530Google Scholar
- Al-ameedi A, Faris J, Rabee A, Naji H, Obayes A, Obaid W (2018) Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydro alcoholic extract of (Syzygium aromaticum) in albino mice. Kufa J Vet Med Sci 8(2)Google Scholar
- Cheesbrough M (2000) District laboratory practice in tropical country part 2: microbiology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Chowdaiah M, Kumar S, Dhamodhar P (2016) An overview on the prevalence of drug resistant Streptococcus mutans in dental caries patient. Int J Res Eng Technol 17(11):15–18Google Scholar
- Collee JG, Fraser AG, Marmion BP, Simmons A (1996) Mackie and McCartney. Pract Med Microbiol 14:413–424Google Scholar
- El Sherbiny GM (2014) Control of growth Streptococcus mutans isolated from saliva and dental caries. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3(10):1–10Google Scholar
- Farag RS, Sekina SE (2016) Herbicidal and fungicidal effects of pomegranate peels and leave crude juices. EPH-Int J Sci Eng 2(1):19–33Google Scholar
- Gibbons NE, Murray RGE (1978) Proposals concerning the higher taxa of bacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 28(1):1–6Google Scholar
- Goldberg B (2013) Alternative medicine: the definitive guide. Celestial ArtsGoogle Scholar
- Gupta M, Singh D, Gularia P, Gupta S (2015) GCMS analysis and identifications of chemical constituents of Syzygium aromaticum, Brassica compestris and cow ghee. J Chem Pharm Res 7(1):568–572Google Scholar
- Harborne A (1998) Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Huber R, Gminski R, Tang T, Weinert T, Schulz S, Linke-Cordes M et al (2017) Pomegranate (Punica granatum) seed oil for treating menopausal symptoms: an individually controlled cohort study. Altern Ther Health Med 23(2)Google Scholar
- Karikalan S, Mohankumar A (2016) Antibiogram of Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental caries patients. Int J Med Health Res 2(3):79–83Google Scholar
- Kulkarni M, Tambe R, Bhise K (2013) Preliminary phytochemical screening and HPTLC studies of extracts of dried rhizomes of Aspidium cicutarium. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2(3):50–54Google Scholar
- Mohammed GJ, Hameed IH (2018) Anti-fungal, antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity of Acorus calamus. Indian J Public Health 9(3):255Google Scholar
- Perez C (1990) Antibiotic assay by agar-well diffusion method. Acta Biol Med Exp 15:113–115Google Scholar
- Prakash D, Ramesh K, Gopinath N, Shantha Kumar SS, Varuvelil GJ (2014) Antibacterial efficacy of Syzygium aromaticum extracts on multi-drug resistant Streptococcus mutans isolated from dental plaque samples. J Biochem Technol 3(5):155–157Google Scholar
- Rajendran P, Bharathidasan R, Sureka I (2017) Phytochemical screening GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of sugarcane juice. Int J Pharma Res Health Sci 5(6):1962–1967Google Scholar
- Razafimamonjison G, Jahiel M, Duclos T, Ramanoelina P, Fawbush F, Danthu P (2014) Bud, leaf and stem essential oil composition of Syzygium aromaticum from Madagascar, Indonesia and Zanzibar. Int J Basic Appl Sci 3(3):224Google Scholar
- Roy A, Jauhari N, Bharadvaja N (2018) 6 Medicinal plants as. Anticancer Plants 2:109Google Scholar
- Sahu R, Saxena J (2013) Screening of total phenolic and flavonoid content in conventional and non-conventional species of curcuma. J Pharmacogn Phytochem 2(1)Google Scholar
- Shakya AK (2016) Medicinal plants: future source of new drugs. Int J Herb Med 4(4):59–64Google Scholar
- Sultana S, Shahidullah AH, Islam MM, Wasey AFSA, Nahar S (2015) Antibacterial effect of aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract, crude neem leaf paste, and ceftriaxone against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Malays J Med Biol Res 2(2):89–100Google Scholar
- Thompson M, Jaiswal Y, Wang I, Williams L (2017) Hepatotoxicity: treatment, causes and applications of medicinal plants as therapeutic agents. J Phytopharmacol 6:186–193Google Scholar
- Tripathi IP, Dwivedi N (2015) Pharmacognostical standardization of nutmeg seeds (Myristica fragrans Houtt.)—a traditional medicine. Int J Pharm Sci Res 6(07):3096–3102Google Scholar
- Zhang CR, Jayashre E, Kumar PS, Nair MG (2015) Antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds in nutmeg (Myristica fragrans) pericarp as determined by in vitro assays. Nat Prod Commun 10(8):1399–1402Google Scholar