Linguistics and Philosophy

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 285–324

The lexical semantics of derived statives

Research Article

Abstract

This paper investigates the semantics of derived statives, deverbal adjectives that fail to entail there to have been a preceding (temporal) event of the kind named by the verb they are derived from, e.g. darkened in a darkened portion of skin. Building on Gawron’s (The lexical semantics of extent verbs, San Diego State University, ms, 2009) recent observations regarding the semantics of extent uses of change of state verbs (e.g., Kim’s skin darkens between the knee and the calf) and Kennedy and Levin’s (Measure of change: The adjectival core of degree achievements, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2008) theory of change, it is shown, contrary to previous analyses, that a fully compositional semantic analysis is possible, and thus that there is no argument from derived statives for word formation differing from semantic composition above the word level in requiring deletion operations, as in Dubinsky and Simango’s (Passive and stative in Chichewa, Language 72:749–781, 1996) analysis. Further, such an analysis, by contrast with previous ones, both compositional (Jackson in Resultatives, derived statives, and lexical semantic structure, Doctoral dissertation, UCLA, 2005b; Condoravdi and Deo in Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Linguists (CIL 18), Seoul, 2008) and non-compositional (Dubinsky and Simango 1996), correctly predicts, as shown by a range of arguments, that the meaning of the derived stative contains the meaning of the verb it is derived from and that it therefore contrasts fundamentally with morphologically simple adjectives in the kind of meaning that it has.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alexiadou A., Anagnostopoulou E. (2008) Structuring participles. In: Chang C.B., Haynie H.J. (eds) Proceedings of the 26th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics.. Somerville MA, Cascadilla Proceedings Project, pp 33–41Google Scholar
  2. Alexiadou A., Anagnostopoulou E., Schäfer F. (2006) The properties of anti-causatives crosslinguistically. In: Frascarelli M. (eds) Phases of interpretation. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 187–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chierchia G. (1989) Structured meanings, thematic roles and control. In: Chierchia G., Partee B.H., Turner R. (eds) Properties, types and meaning.. Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp 131–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chierchia, G. (2004). A semantics for unaccusatives and its syntactic consequences. In A. Alexiadou, E. Anagnostopoulou, & M. Everaert (Eds.), The unaccusativity puzzle (pp. 22–59). Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Previously circulated as unpublished 1989 Cornell University manuscript.]Google Scholar
  5. Condoravdi, C., & Deo, A. (2008). Aspect shifts in Indo-Aryan. In Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Linguists (CIL 18): Workshop on formal approaches to the relation of tense, aspect and modality. Seoul.Google Scholar
  6. Cresswell M.J. (1985) Structured meanings: The semantics of propositional attitudes. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  7. DeLancey S. (1984) Notes on agentivity and causation. Studies in Language 8: 181–213CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Deo, A. (2006). Tense and aspect in Indo-Aryan languages: Variation and diachrony. Doctoral Dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.Google Scholar
  9. Dixon R.M.W. (1982) Where have all the adjectives gone?: And other essays in semantics and syntax. Mouton, The HagueCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doron, E. (2009). The interaction of adjectival passive and voice. Handout of talk given at Stanford University, February 17, 2009.Google Scholar
  11. Dowty D. (1979) Word meaning and Montague grammar. D. Reidel Publishing, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dowty D. (2007) Compositionality as an empirical problem. In: Barker C., Jacobson P. (eds) Direct compositionality.. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 23–101Google Scholar
  13. Dubinsky S., Simango S.R. (1996) Passive and stative in Chichewa: Evidence for modular distinctions in grammar. Language 72: 749–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Embick D. (2004) On the structure of resultative participles in English. Linguistic Inquiry 35: 355–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Embick, D. (2009). Roots, states, stative passives. Handout of talk presented at Roots, Stuttgart, June 11, 2009.Google Scholar
  16. Gawron, M. (2009). The lexical semantics of extent verbs. San Diego State University, ms., January 31, 2009.Google Scholar
  17. Grimshaw J. (1982) On the lexical representation of Romance reflexive clitics. In: Bresnan J. (eds) The mental representation of grammatical relations. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp 87–148Google Scholar
  18. Härtl H. (2003) Conceptual and grammatical characteristics of argument alternations: The case of decausative verbs. Linguistics 41: 883–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jackson, E. (2005a). Derived statives in Pima. Handout of talk given at SSILA, January 7, 2005.Google Scholar
  20. Jackson, E. (2005b). Resultatives, derived statives, and lexical semantic structure. Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA.Google Scholar
  21. Jaxontov S.J. (1988) Resultative in Chinese. In: Nedjalkov V.P. (eds) Typology of resultative constructions. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 113–133Google Scholar
  22. Kallulli, D. (2006). On unaccusative morphology and argument realization. University of Vienna.Google Scholar
  23. Kearns K. (2000) Semantics. Macmillan Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  24. Kennedy C. (1999) Projecting the adjective: The syntax and semantics of gradability and comparison. Garland, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Kennedy C. (2007) Vagueness and grammar: The semantics of relative and absolute gradable adjectives. Linguistics and Philosophy 30: 1–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kennedy C., Levin B. (2008) Measure of change: The adjectival core of degree achievements. In: McNally L., Kennedy C. (eds) Adjectives and adverbs: Syntax, semantics, and discourse. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 156–182Google Scholar
  27. Kennedy C., McNally L. (2005) Scale structure, degree modification, and the semantics of gradable predicates. Language 81: 345–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kim, Y. (2008). Topics in the phonology and morphology of San Francisco del Mar Huave. Doctoral Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  29. Koontz-Garboden A. (2005) On the typology of state/change of state alternations. Yearbook of Morphology 2005: 83–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Koontz-Garboden, A. (2006). The states in changes of state. In Proceedings of the 32nd annual meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, Berkeley, CA.Google Scholar
  31. Koontz-Garboden A. (2008) Monotonicity at the lexical semantics–morphosyntax interface. In: Elfner E., Walkow M. (eds) Proceedings of the 37th Meeting of the North East Linguistic Society. Amherst, MA, GLSA, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  32. Koontz-Garboden A. (2009a) Anticausativization. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 27: 77–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Koontz-Garboden A. (2009b) Ulwa verb class morphology. International Journal of American Linguistics 75: 453–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Koontz-Garboden, A. (2010). Only some lexical semantic roots are morphological roots. Paper presented at annual meeting of the Linguistic Association of Great Britain, Leeds, September 3, 2010. http://personalpages.manchester.ac.uk/staff/andrewkg/cos-roots-ho-2-sept.pdf.
  35. Koontz-Garboden, A. (to appear). The monotonicity hypothesis. In L. McNally & V. Demonte (Eds.), Telicity, change, and state: A cross-categorial view of event structure. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Koontz-Garboden, A., & Beavers, J. (2011). Manner and result in the roots of verbal meaning. The University of Manchester and The University of Texas at Austin, ms.Google Scholar
  37. Kratzer, A. (2000). Building statives. In Proceedings of the 26th Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 385–399). Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.Google Scholar
  38. Krohn, L. (2008). The manner/result complementarity and verbs of the manner of death. Unpublished undergraduate Grammatical Semantics Class Essay, The University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  39. Langacker, R. (1986). Abstract motion. In Proceedings of the 12th Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (pp. 455–471). Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Linguistics Society.Google Scholar
  40. Levin B. (1993) English verb classes and alternations: A preliminary investigation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, ILGoogle Scholar
  41. Levin, B., & Rappaport Hovav, M. (2003). Roots and templates in the representation of verb meaning. Handout of talk at the Department of Linguistics, Stanford University, May 15, 2003.Google Scholar
  42. Mačavariani M.V. (1988) Stative, resultative, passive, and perfect in Georgian. In: Nedjalkov V.P. (eds) Typology of resultative constructions, English translation edited by B. Comrie. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 259–275Google Scholar
  43. Marantz, A. (1997). No escape from syntax: Don’t try morphological analysis in the privacy of your own lexicon. In Proceedings of the 21st Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium (pp. 201–225). Volume 4.2 of University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics.Google Scholar
  44. Mateu, J. (2009). Events in non-verbal domains: A DM-based approach. Handout of talk given at Events across categories: Theoretical and experimental approaches to event structure. Madrid, 27–28 May 2009.Google Scholar
  45. Matsumoto Y. (1996) Subjective motion and English and Japanese verbs. Cognitive Linguistics 7: 183–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mchombo S. (1993) A formal analysis of the stative construction in Bantu. Journal of African Languages and Linguistics 14: 5–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mchombo S. (2004) The syntax of Chichewa. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Meltzer, A. (2009). Adjectival passives in hebrew: Evidence for parallelism between the adjectival and verbal systems. Tel Aviv University, ms. lingBuzz/000907.Google Scholar
  49. Nedjalkov I.V., Nedjalkov V.P. (1988) Stative, resultative, passive, and perfect in Evenki. In: Nedjalkov V.P. (eds) Typology of resultative constructions, English translation edited by B. Comrie. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 241–257Google Scholar
  50. Nedjalkov, V.P. (eds) (1988) Typology of resultative constructions. John Benjamins, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  51. Nedjalkov V.P., Inenlikey P.I., Raxtilin V.G. (1988) Resultative and perfect in Chukchee. In: Nedjalkov V.P. (eds) Typology of resultative constructions. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 153–166Google Scholar
  52. Nedjalkov V.P., Jaxontov S.J. (1988) The typology of resultative constructions. In: Nedjalkov V.P. (eds) Typology of resultative constructions. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 3–62Google Scholar
  53. Perel’muter I.A. (1988) Stative, resultative, passive, and perfect in Ancient Greek (Homeric Greek). In: Nedjalkov V.P. (eds) Typology of resultative constructions, English translation edited by B. Comrie. John Benjamins, Amsterdam, pp 277–287Google Scholar
  54. Piñón C. (2008) Aspectual composition with degrees. In: McNally L., Kennedy C. (eds) Adjectives and adverbs: Syntax, semantics, and discourse.. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 183–219Google Scholar
  55. Pustejovsky, J. (1992). The syntax of event structure. In B. Levin & S. Pinker (Eds.), Lexical and conceptual semantics (pp. 47–82). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell [Reprinted from Cognition 41].Google Scholar
  56. Pustejovsky J. (1995) The generative lexicon. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  57. Ramchand G.C. (2008) Verb meaning and the lexicon: A first-phase syntax. Cambridge University Press., CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rappaport Hovav M., Levin B. (1998) Building verb meanings. In: Butt M., Geuder W. (eds) The projection of arguments: Lexical and compositional factors. CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA, pp 97–134Google Scholar
  59. Reinhart T. (2002) The theta system: An overview. Theoretical Linguistics 28: 229–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Reinhart T., Siloni T. (2005) The lexicon-syntax parameter: Reflexivization and other arity operations. Linguistic Inquiry 36: 389–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rothstein S. (2004) Structuring events. Blackwell, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Saxton D., Saxton L., Enos S. (1983) Tohono O’odham/Pima to English, English to Tohono O’odham/Pima dictionary (2nd edn). The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, AZGoogle Scholar
  63. Smith, M. (2006). Canalization of causative derivations. Paper presented at 2006 meeting of LSA, Albuquerque, New Mexico.Google Scholar
  64. Talmy L. (2000) Towards a cognitive semantics, volume 1: Concept structuring systems. MIT Press, Cambridge, MAGoogle Scholar
  65. Wasow T. (1977) Transformations and the lexicon. In: Culicover P., Wasow T., Akmajian A. (eds) Formal syntax.. Academic Press, New York, pp 327–360Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Linguistics and English LanguageThe University of ManchesterManchesterUK

Personalised recommendations