- 461 Downloads
Scalar implicatures depend on alternatives in order to avoid the symmetry problem. I argue for a structure-sensitive characterization of these alternatives: the alternatives for a structure are all those structures that are at most as complex as the original one. There have been claims in the literature that complexity is irrelevant for implicatures and that the relevant condition is the semantic notion of monotonicity. I provide new data that pose a challenge to the use of monotonicity and that support the structure-sensitive definition. I show that what appeared to be a problem for the complexity approach is overcome once an appropriate notion of complexity is adopted, and that upon closer inspection, the argument in favor of monotonicity turns out to be an argument against it and in favor of the complexity approach.
KeywordsScalar implicature Horn scales Complexity Alternatives
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Atlas J.D. and Levinson S. (1981). It-clefts, informativeness and logical form. In: Cole, P. (eds) Radical pragmatics, pp. Academic Press, New York Google Scholar
- Chierchia, G. (2004). Scalar implicatures, polarity phenomena, and the syntax/pragmatics interface. In A. Belletti (Ed.), Structures and beyond. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Fox, D. (2006). Free choice and the theory of scalar implicatures. Ms., MIT.Google Scholar
- Gamut, L. T. F. (1991). Logic, language, and meaning. Chicago University Press.Google Scholar
- Gazdar G. (1979). Pragmatics: Implicature, presupposition and logical form. Academic Press, New York Google Scholar
- Geurts, B. (2007). Scalar implicature and local pragmatics. URL http://www.ru.nl/ncs/bart/papers/globallocal.pdf. Ms., University of Nijmegen, May 2007.
- Grice P. (1989). Studies in the way of words. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA Google Scholar
- Halle M., Marantz A. (1993). Distributed morphology and the pieces of inflection. In: Hale K., Keyser J. (eds). The view from Building 20 (pp. 111–176). MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Hirschberg, J. (1985/1991). A theory of scalar implicature. PhD Thesis, University of Pennsylvania, Garland, New York.Google Scholar
- Horn, L. (1972). On the semantic properties of the logical operators in English. Doctoral Dissertation, UCLA.Google Scholar
- Horn L. (1984). Toward a new taxonomy for pragmatic inference: Q-based and R-based implicatures. In: Schiffrin, D. (eds) Meaning, form and use in context, pp 11–42. Georgetown University Press, Washington Google Scholar
- Horn L. (1989). A natural history of negation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago Google Scholar
- Kroch, A. (1972). Lexical and inferred meanings for some time adverbials. Quarterly Progress Reports of the Research Laboratory of Electronics 104. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT.Google Scholar
- Landman F. (2000). Events and plurality: The Jerusalem lectures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht Google Scholar
- Levinson S. (2000). Presumptive meanings. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Google Scholar
- Marantz, A. (1997). No escape from syntax: Don’t try morphological analysis in the privacy of your own lexicon. In A. Dimitriadis, L. Siegel, C. Surek-Clark, & A. Williams, (Eds.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium, volume 4.2 of UPenn Working Papers in Linguistics, 201–225.Google Scholar
- McCawley, J. D. (1978). Conversational implicatures and the lexicon. In P. Cole (Ed.), Syntax and semantics (Vol. 9: Pragmatics, pp. 245–259). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Poser W.J. (1992). Blocking of phrasal constructions by lexical items. In: Sag, I. and Szabolsci, A. (eds) Lexical matters, pp 111–130. CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA Google Scholar
- Sevi, A. (2005). Exhaustivity: A semantic account of ‘quantity’ implicatures. Doctoral Dissertation, Tel-Aviv University.Google Scholar
- Soames S. (1982). How presuppositions are inherited: A solution to the projection problem. Linguistic Inquiry 13: 483–545 Google Scholar
- Spector, B. (2007). Scalar implicatures: Exhaustivity and Gricean reasoning. In M. Aloni, A. Butler, & P. Dekker (Eds.), Questions in dynamic semantics (pp. 229–254). Elsevier.Google Scholar
- von Fintel, K., & Fox, D. (2002). Classnotes for 24:954: Pragmatics in linguistic theory. DSpace. URL http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/36355.
- Zipf G.K. (1949). Human behaviour and the principle of least effort. Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, MA Google Scholar