Advertisement

Landscape Ecology

, Volume 34, Issue 8, pp 1877–1888 | Cite as

Latitude-enhanced species-area relationships for conservation planning

  • Marcia S. MeixlerEmail author
  • Kim Fisher
  • Eric W. Sanderson
Research Article

Abstract

Context

Species-area relationship models are useful in conservation planning; however these models could be strengthened with the addition of a latitudinal factor.

Objectives

We built latitude-enhanced species-area relationship models to predict species richness for a variety of common taxa in the eastern United States at local to regional scales.

Methods

We used data from complete surveys of East Coast parks in the United States to build latitude-enhanced species-area relationship models for amphibians, birds, freshwater fish, mammals, marine fish, plants, and reptiles. We used data from the published literature and United States Fish and Wildlife Refuges to independently test the accuracy of the models. We demonstrated the utility of all modeled taxa within selected East Coast Protected Areas of the United States.

Results

Our models explained 35–91% of the variation in surveyed species richness, with marine fish, freshwater fish and reptile models exhibiting the strongest relationships (pseudo-R2 = 0.91, 0.66, and 0.70, respectively). Latitude had the strongest influence in the amphibian model. During accuracy testing, all taxa exhibited significant agreement between observed and predicted species richness and explained 75–97% of the variation. Our demonstration showed that for two similarly sized US Protected Areas, the parcel l.25° lower in latitude would likely have one more bird species, four more plant species, and an additional amphibian species.

Conclusions

The latitude term added value to the species-area relationship models for most taxa and proved useful for conservation and urban planning in local to regional sized areas of the East Coast of the United States.

Keywords

Model Negative binomial regression Species richness Taxa Urban Vertebrates 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by funding from the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service [Cooperative agreement: P14AC01473]. We would like to thank the people who helped in the collection of data for this project, namely: Jennifer Meller, Glen Kandia, and Joseph Rua. Ellen Creveling of The Nature Conservancy generously shared data for model construction and we very much appreciate her willingness to collaborate on this project. We would also like to thank Charles Yackulic for valuable statistical modeling input, Glen Kandia for editing assistance, and to the anonymous reviewers for their comments that helped to improve the presentation.

Supplementary material

10980_2019_863_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (372 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 372 kb)

References

  1. Adler PB, White EP, Lauenroth WK, Kaufman DM, Rassweiler A, Rusak JA (2005) Evidence for a general species–time–area relationship. Ecology 86(8):2032–2039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen AP, Brown JH, Gillooly JF (2002) Global biodiversity, biochemical kinetics, and the energetic equivalence rule. Science 297:1545–1548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson MG, Ferree CE (2010) Conserving the stage: climate change and the geophysical underpinnings of species diversity. PLoS ONE 5(7):e11554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrew NR, Hughes L (2004) Species diversity and structure of phytophagous beetle assemblages along a latitudinal gradient: predicting the potential impacts of climate change. Ecol Entomol 29(5):527–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arita HT, Rodríguez P (2002) Geographic range, turnover rate and the scaling of species diversity. Ecography 25(5):541–550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barbour CD, Brown JH (1974) Fish species diversity in lakes. Am Nat 108:473–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beier P, Sutcliffe P, Hjort J, Faith DP, Pressey RL, Albuquerque F (2015) A review of selection-based tests of abiotic surrogates for species representation. Conserv Biol 29(3):668–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Branch SA (1985) National estuarine inventory data atlas, vol 1. Physical and hydrologic characteristics. Ocean Assessments Division, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Rockville, p 103Google Scholar
  9. Cain SA (1938) The species-area curve. Am Midl Nat 19:573–581CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Case TJ (1975) Species numbers, density compensation, and colonizing ability of lizards on islands in the Gulf of California. Ecology 56(1):3–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chape S, Harrison J, Spalding M, Lysenko I (2005) Measuring the extent and effectiveness of protected areas as an indicator for meeting global biodiversity targets. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 360(1454):443–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connor EF, McCoy ED (1979) The statistics and biology of the species-area relationship. Am Nat 113(6):791–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cramer W, Bondeau A, Woodward FI, Prentice IC, Betts RA, Brovkin V, Cox PM, Fisher V, Foley JA, Friend AD, Kucharik C (2001) Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Glob Change Biol 7(4):357–373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Currie DJ (1991) Energy and large-scale patterns of animal-and plant-species richness. Am Nat 137(1):27–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Camargo RX, Currie DJ (2015) An empirical investigation of why species–area relationships overestimate species losses. Ecology 96(5):1253–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Drakare S, Lennon JJ, Hillebrand H (2006) The imprint of the geographical, evolutionary and ecological context on species–area relationships. Ecol Lett 9(2):215–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Estuarine Living Marine Resources Database (2016) http://www8.nos.noaa.gov/biogeo_public/elmr.aspx. Accessed 7 July 2016
  18. Fattorini S, Mantoni C, De Simoni L, Galassi DM (2018) Island biogeography of insect conservation in urban green spaces. Environ Conserv 45(1):1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fei S, Desprez JM, Potter KM, Jo I, Knott JA, Oswalt CM (2017) Divergence of species responses to climate change. Sci Adv 3(5):e1603055CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Field R, Hawkins BA, Cornell HV, Currie DJ, Diniz-Filho JAF, Guégan JF, Kaufman DM, Kerr JT, Mittelbach GG, Oberdorff T, O’Brien EM (2009) Spatial species-richness gradients across scales: a meta-analysis. J Biogeogr 36(1):132–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fischer AG (1960) Latitudinal variations in organic diversity. Evolution 14(1):64–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fridley JD, Peet RK, Van der Maarel E, Willems JH (2006) Integration of local and regional species-area relationships from space-time species accumulation. Am Nat 168(2):133–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Gaston KJ (2007) Latitudinal gradient in species richness. Curr Biol 17(15):R574CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gleason HA (1922) On the relation between species and area. Ecology 3(2):158–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gordon A, Simondson D, White M, Moilanen A, Bekessy SA (2009) Integrating conservation planning and landuse planning in urban landscapes. Landsc Urban Plan 91(4):183–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gotelli NJ (1995) A primer of ecology. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  27. Haffer J (1969) Speciation in Amazonian forest birds. Science 165:131–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Harte J, Kinzig AP (1997) On the implications of species-area relationships for endemism, spatial turnover, and food web patterns. Oikos 80:417–427CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Hester RT (2006) Design for ecological democracy. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  30. Hill JL, Curran PJ, Foody GM (1994) The effect of sampling on the species-area curve. Glob Ecol Biogeogr Lett 4:97–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hillebrand H (2004) On the generality of the latitudinal diversity gradient. Am Nat 163(2):192–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hurlbert AH, Jetz W (2010) More than “more individuals”: the nonequivalence of area and energy in the scaling of species richness. Am Nat 176(2):E50–E65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Huyck Preserve (2015) https://www.huyckpreserve.org/visit-us.html. Accessed 21 July 2015
  34. Integrated Resource Management Applications (2015) National Park Service IRMA Portal. https://irma.nps.gov. Accessed 15 Dec 2015
  35. Jury SH, Field JD, Stone SL, Nelson DM, Monaco ME (1994) Distribution and abundance of fishes and invertebrates in North Atlantic estuaries. ELMR Rep. No. 13. NOAA/NOS Strategic Environmental Assessments Division, Silver Spring, MDGoogle Scholar
  36. Kaufman DM, Willig MR (1998) Latitudinal patterns of mammalian species richness in the New World: the effects of sampling method and faunal group. J Biogeogr 25(4):795–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kilburn PD (1966) Analysis of the species-area relation. Ecology 47(5):831–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. King RB, Oldham MJ, Weller WF, Wynn D (1997) Historic and current amphibian and reptile distributions in the island region of western Lake Erie. Am Midl Nat 138:153–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kiviat E, MacDonald K (2004) Biodiversity patterns and conservation in the Hackensack Meadowlands, New Jersey. Urban Habitats 2(1):28–61Google Scholar
  40. Kozak KH, Wiens JJ (2007) Climatic zonation drives latitudinal variation in speciation mechanisms. Proc R Soc Lond B 274(1628):2995–3003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lawler JJ, Ackerly DD, Albano CM, Anderson MG, Dobrowski SZ, Gill JL, Heller NE, Pressey RL, Sanderson EW, Weiss SB (2015) The theory behind, and the challenges of, conserving nature’s stage in a time of rapid change. Conserv Biol 29(3):618–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lomolino MV (2000) Ecology’s most general, yet protean pattern: the species-area relationship. J Biogeogr 27(1):17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Lomolino MV (2001) The species-area relationship: new challenges for an old pattern. Prog Phys Geogr 25(1):1–21Google Scholar
  44. Lyons SK, Willig MR (2002) Species richness, latitude, and scale-sensitivity. Ecology 83(1):47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Margules CR, Pressey RL (2000) Systematic conservation planning. Nature 405(6783):243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miller JR, Hobbs RJ (2002) Conservation where people live and work. Conserv Biol 16(2):330–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mittelbach GG, Schemske DW, Cornell HV, Allen AP, Brown JM, Bush MB, Harrison SP, Hurlbert AH, Knowlton N, Lessios HA, McCain CM (2007) Evolution and the latitudinal diversity gradient: speciation, extinction and biogeography. Ecol Lett 10(4):315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Da Fonseca GA, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403(6772):853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. North Carolina Division of Parks (2015) http://www.dpr.ncparks.gov/nrid/public.php. Accessed 21 July 2015
  50. Oberdorff T, Tedesco PA, Hugueny B, Leprieur F, Beauchard O, Brosse S, Dürr HH (2011) Global and regional patterns in riverine fish species richness: a review. Int J Ecol.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/967631 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ormond RFG, Roberts CM (1997) Biodiversity of coral reef fishes. In: Ormond RFG, Gage JD, Angel MV (eds) Marine biodiversity: patterns and processes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 216–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Palmer MW (1990) The estimation of species richness by extrapolation. Ecology 71(3):1195–1198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Palmer MW, White PS (1994) Scale dependence and the species-area relationship. Am Nat 144(5):717–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Pianka ER (1966) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: a review of concepts. Am Nat 100(910):33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Pimm SL, Lawton JH, Cohen JE (1991) Food web patterns and their consequences. Nature 350(6320):669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Qian H, Fridley JD, Palmer MW (2007) The latitudinal gradient of species-area relationships for vascular plants of North America. Am Nat 170(5):690–701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Rabosky DL, Huang H (2015) Minimal effects of latitude on present-day speciation rates in New World birds. Proc R Soc B 282(1809):20142889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Rahbek C (1997) The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds. Am Nat 149(5):875–902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Riebesell JF (1982) Arctic-alpine plants on mountaintops: agreement with island biogeography theory. Am Nat 119(5):657–674CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rohde K (1992) Latitudinal gradients in species diversity: the search for the primary cause. Oikos 65:514–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Rosenzweig ML (1995) Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Sanderson EW (2013) Mannahatta: a natural history of New York City. Abrams, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  63. Sanderson EW, Huron A (2011) Conservation in the city. Conserv Biol 25(3):421–423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sanderson EW, Orton P, Fischbach J, Knopman D, Roberts H, Solecki WD, Fitzpatrick J, Wilson R (2016) Computational modelling of the Jamaica Bay system. In: Sanderson EW, Solecki WD, Waldman JR, Parris AS (eds) Prospects for resilience: insights from New York City’s Jamaica Bay. Island Press, Washington, D.CCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Schemske DW (2009) Biotic interactions and speciation in the tropics. In: Butlin R, Bridle J, Schluter D (eds) Speciation and patterns of diversity. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  66. Scott JM, Davis F, Csuti B, Noss R, Butterfield B, Groves C, Anderson H, Caicco S, D’Erchia F, Edwards Jr TC, Ulliman J (1993) Gap analysis: a geographic approach to protection of biological diversity. Wildlife Monographs, pp 3–41Google Scholar
  67. Šizling AL, Šizlingová E, Tjørve E, Tjørve KM, Kunin WE (2017) How to allow SAR collapse across local and continental scales: a resolution of the controversy between Storch et al. (2012) and Lazarina et al. (2013). Ecography 40(8):971–981CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Smith BT, McCormack JE, Cuervo AM, Hickerson MJ, Aleixo A, Cadena CD, Pérez-Emán J, Burney CW, Xie X, Harvey MG, Faircloth BC (2014) The drivers of tropical speciation. Nature 515(7527):406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Snodgrass JW, Komoroski MJ, Bryan AL, Burger J (2000) Relationships among isolated wetland size, hydroperiod, and amphibian species richness: implications for wetland regulations. Conserv Biol 14(2):414–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Solymos P, Lele SR (2012) Global pattern and local variation in species–area relationships. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 21(2):109–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Stonybrook-Millstone Watershed Association. 2015. http://thewatershed.org/resource-center/reports-and-materials/conservation/. Accessed 21 July 2015
  72. Symes WS, Rao M, Mascia MB, Carrasco LR (2016) Why do we lose protected areas? Factors influencing protected area downgrading, downsizing and degazettement in the tropics and subtropics. Glob Change Biol 22(2):656–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. United Nations Environment Programme-World Conservation Monitoring Centre (UNEP-WCMC) (2002) Protected Areas Database v5.0. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  74. United States Bureau of the Census (2000) Statistical abstract of the United States. US Government Printing Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  75. United States Fish and Wildlife Service (2018) http://www.fws.gov/refuges. Accessed 14 Dec 2018
  76. United States Geological Survey, Gap Analysis Program (2011) National Land Cover, Version 2Google Scholar
  77. United States Geological Survey, Gap Analysis Program (2018) Protected areas database of the United States. https://gapanalysis.usgs.gov/padus/data/download/. Accessed 23 July 2018
  78. Venter O, Fuller RA, Segan DB, Carwardine J, Brooks T, Butchart SH, Di Marco M, Iwamura T, Joseph L, O’Grady D, Possingham HP (2014) Targeting global protected area expansion for imperiled biodiversity. PLoS Biol 12(6):e1001891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wang X, Lindsey G, Schoner JE, Harrison A (2015) Modeling bike share station activity: effects of nearby businesses and jobs on trips to and from stations. J Urban Plann Dev 142(1):04015001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Willig MR, Kaufman DM, Stevens RD (2003) Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 34:273–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Yoccoz NG, Nichols JD, Boulinier T (2001) Monitoring of biological diversity in space and time. Trends Ecol Evol 16(8):446–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Evolution, and Natural ResourcesRutgers UniversityNew BrunswickUSA
  2. 2.Wildlife Conservation SocietyBronxUSA

Personalised recommendations