Small-scale agricultural landscapes promote spider and ground beetle densities by offering suitable overwintering sites
Intensive agricultural management practices and landscape homogenisation are the main drivers of biodiversity loss in agricultural landscapes. Agricultural fields are regularly disturbed and provide unstable habitats due to crop management regimes. This may lead to movement of arthropods into neighbouring non-arable habitats, as natural and semi-natural habitats provide suitable overwintering sites.
Here we assessed the effect of landscape composition and configuration on the overwintering spider and carabid fauna of grassy field margins and hedgerows.
We sampled ground-dwelling arthropods at field edges of different types (grassy field margin and hedgerows), landscape composition (diverse and simple) and configuration (mosaic and large-scale agricultural landscapes).
We detected larger spiders in hedgerows than in grassy field margins and in complex landscapes rather than in simple landscapes. We found a significant effect of interaction between landscape composition and edge type on ballooning propensity of spiders. Agrobiont carabids were more abundant in field edges of compositionally simple and large-scale agricultural landscapes. Furthermore, we showed an effect of interaction between landscape composition and edge type on agrobiont spiders. We collected larger carabids in grassy field margins than in hedgerows and carabids were smaller in simple landscapes than in diverse landscapes. The spider community was affected by edge type, and landscape composition had a significant effect on the carabid community.
Small-scale agricultural landscapes may have higher overall densities of ground-dwelling spiders and carabids than large scale landscapes due to the relatively high edge density and the higher quantity of available overwintering sites.
KeywordsGrassy field margin Overwintering arthropods Landscape composition Landscape configuration Hedgerow
This work was supported by the Hungarian National Research, Development and Innovation Office (Grant Id: NKFI-FK-124579).
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