Landscape Ecology

, Volume 28, Issue 5, pp 931–942 | Cite as

Feedbacks between vegetation pattern and resource loss dramatically decrease ecosystem resilience and restoration potential in a simple dryland model

  • Ángeles G. Mayor
  • Sonia Kéfi
  • Susana Bautista
  • Francisco Rodríguez
  • Fabrizio Cartení
  • Max Rietkerk
Research article


Conceptual frameworks of dryland degradation commonly include ecohydrological feedbacks between landscape spatial organization and resource loss, so that decreasing cover and size of vegetation patches result in higher water and soil losses, which lead to further vegetation loss. However, the impacts of these feedbacks on dryland dynamics in response to external stress have barely been tested. Using a spatially-explicit model, we represented feedbacks between vegetation pattern and landscape resource loss by establishing a negative dependence of plant establishment on the connectivity of runoff-source areas (e.g., bare soils). We assessed the impact of various feedback strengths on the response of dryland ecosystems to changing external conditions. In general, for a given external pressure, these connectivity-mediated feedbacks decrease vegetation cover at equilibrium, which indicates a decrease in ecosystem resistance. Along a gradient of gradual increase of environmental pressure (e.g., aridity), the connectivity-mediated feedbacks decrease the amount of pressure required to cause a critical shift to a degraded state (ecosystem resilience). If environmental conditions improve, these feedbacks increase the pressure release needed to achieve the ecosystem recovery (restoration potential). The impact of these feedbacks on dryland response to external stress is markedly non-linear, which relies on the non-linear negative relationship between bare-soil connectivity and vegetation cover. Modelling studies on dryland vegetation dynamics not accounting for the connectivity-mediated feedbacks studied here may overestimate the resistance, resilience and restoration potential of drylands in response to environmental and human pressures. Our results also suggest that changes in vegetation pattern and associated hydrological connectivity may be more informative early-warning indicators of dryland degradation than changes in vegetation cover.


Resource-leakiness feedbacks Vegetation spatial pattern Hydrological connectivity Desertification Resilience Restoration potential Dryland ecosystems 



This work was supported by the research projects PATTERN (AGCL2008/-05532-C02-01/FOR) and FEEDBACK (CGL2011-30515-C02-01) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Innovation and Science, the EC-funded projects PRACTICE (GA226818) and CASCADE (GA283068), and the project RESINEE funded by the ERA-Net on Complexity. AGM was supported by a postdoctoral contract (APOSTD/2011/005) from the Valencia Regional Government (Generalitat Valenciana), Spain.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ángeles G. Mayor
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sonia Kéfi
    • 3
  • Susana Bautista
    • 4
  • Francisco Rodríguez
    • 5
  • Fabrizio Cartení
    • 6
  • Max Rietkerk
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Innovation, Environmental and Energy Sciences, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and InnovationUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Centre for Mediterranean Environmental Studies (CEAM)Parque TecnológicoPaternaSpain
  3. 3.Institute for Evolutionary SciencesCNRS UMR 5554, University of Montpellier IIMontpellier Cedex 05France
  4. 4.Department of EcologyUniversity of AlicanteAlicanteSpain
  5. 5.Department of Applied MathematicsUniversity of AlicanteAlicanteSpain
  6. 6.Dipartimento di AgrariaUniversity of Naples Federico IIPorticiItaly

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