Landscape Ecology

, 26:1179 | Cite as

Landscapes Toolkit: an integrated modelling framework to assist stakeholders in exploring options for sustainable landscape development

  • Iris C. BohnetEmail author
  • Peter C. Roebeling
  • Kristen J. Williams
  • Dean Holzworth
  • Martijn E. van Grieken
  • Petina L. Pert
  • Frederieke J. Kroon
  • David A. Westcott
  • Jon Brodie
Research Article


At present, stakeholders wishing to develop land use and management change scenarios at the landscape scale and to assess their corresponding impacts on water quality, biodiversity and economic performance, must examine the output of a suite of separate models. The process is not simple and presents a considerable deterrent to making such comparisons and impedes the development of more sustainable, multifunctional landscapes. To remedy this problem, we developed the Landscapes Toolkit, an integrated modelling framework that assists natural resource managers, policy-makers, planners and local communities explore options for sustainable landscape development. The Landscapes Toolkit links spatially-explicit disciplinary models, to enable integrated assessment of the water quality, biodiversity and economic outcomes of stakeholder-defined land use and management change scenarios. We use the Tully–Murray catchment in the Great Barrier Reef region of Australia as a case study to illustrate the development and application of the Landscapes Toolkit. Results show that the Landscapes Toolkit strikes a satisfactory balance between the inclusion of component models that sufficiently capture the richness of some key aspects of social-ecological system processes and the need for stakeholders to understand and compare the results of the different models. The latter is a prerequisite to making more informed decisions about sustainable landscape development. The flexibility of being able to add additional models and to update existing models is a particular strength of the Landscapes Toolkit design. Hence, the Landscapes Toolkit offers a promising modelling framework for supporting social learning and adaptive management through participatory scenario development and evaluation as well as being a tool to guide planning and policy discussions at the landscape scale.


Scenario analysis Decision-support-system Participatory planning Integrated assessment Great Barrier Reef region Land use planning Landscape ecology Water quality Economic Biodiversity 



The authors acknowledge the contributions by Scott Wilkinson, Dan Metcalfe, Andrew Ford, Damon Sydes, Michael Drielsma, Daniel Faith, Jeanette Kemp, Carla Catterall, Peter Thorburn and Tony Webster to the component models and data layers linked in the Landscapes Toolkit. Caroline Bruce provided data management and Adam Fakes programming support. Thanks to the local stakeholders who participated in the project for their time, enthusiasm and valuable feedback. Thanks to Rosemary Hill and Emma Jakku for their interest in the use of decision-support tools and valuable scientific discussions. Mark Smith instigated and supported the early development of the Landscapes Toolkit; thanks for his continued interest and comments on an earlier version of this manuscript. Andre Zerger and three anonymous reviewers also provided valuable comments on earlier versions of this manuscript. CSIRO’s Water for a Healthy Country Flagship funded the development of the Landscapes Toolkit while the Marine and Tropical Science Research Facility contributed towards the development of two component models that are part of the Landscapes Toolkit.


  1. Accad A, Lucas R, Pollock AB, Armston J, Bowen M, McAlpine C, Dwyer J (2010) Mapping the extent and growth stage of woody regrowth following clearing through integration of ALOS PALSAR and Landsat-derived Foliage Projected Cover (FPC). In: 15 ARSPC Australasian remote sensing and photogrammetry conference, 13–17 September 2010. Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute, Alice Springs, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  2. Aide TM, Zimmerman JK, Pascarella JB, Rivera L, Marcano-Vega H (2000) Forest regeneration in a chronosequence of tropical abandoned pastures: implications for restoration ecology. Restor Ecol 8:328–338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon. (2003) The State of Queensland and Commonwealth of Australia. Reef Water Quality Protection Plan for catchments adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Queensland Department of Premier and Cabinet, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  4. Armour JD, Daniels JW (2001) Banana nutrition in north Queensland. Final report to Horticulture Australia Ltd, project FR95013. Department of Natural Resources and Mines/Primary IndustriesGoogle Scholar
  5. Armour JD, Daniels JW, Lindsay SJ (2007) Improved phosphorus fertiliser management of bananas. A report to FNQ NRM Ltd. Department of Natural Resources and Water/Department of Primary Industries and FisheriesGoogle Scholar
  6. Bainbridge ZT, Brodie JE, Faithful JW, Sydes DA, Lewis SE (2009) Identifying the land-based sources of suspended sediments, nutrients and pesticides discharged to the Great Barrier Reef from the Tully–Murray Basin, Queensland, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 60:1081–1090CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baker J (2003) A report on the study of land-sourced pollutants and their impacts on water quality in and adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef. Science Panel, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  8. Beunen R, Opdam P (2011) When landscape planning becomes landscapes governance, what happens to the science? Landsc Urban Plan 100:324–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bohnet I (2008) Assessing retrospective and prospective landscape change through the development of social profiles of landholders: a tool for improving land use planning and policy formulation. Landsc Urban Plan 88:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bohnet IC (2010) Integrating social and ecological knowledge for planning sustainable landscapes: a study from the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. Landscape Ecol 25:1201–1218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bohnet IC, Kinjun C (2009) Community uses and values of water informing water quality improvement planning: a study from the Great Barrier Reef region, Australia. Mar Freshw Res 60:1176–1182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bohnet I, Smith DM (2007) Planning future landscapes in the Wet Tropics of Australia: a social-ecological framework. Landsc Urban Plan 80:137–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohnet I, Brodie J, Bartley R (2008) Assessing water quality impacts of community defined land use change scenarios for the Douglas Shire, Far North Queensland. In: Pettit C, Cartwright W, Bishop I, Lowell K, Pullar D, Duncan D (eds) Landscape analysis and visualisation. Springer, Berlin, pp 383–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bohnet IC, Gooch M, Hickey R (2010) Young people envision the future of their local area: an explorative study from the Wet Tropics, Australia. Appl Environ Commun Educ 9:185–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bouman BAM, Nieuwenhuyse A, Hengsdijk H (1998) PASTOR: a technical coefficient generator for pasture and livestock systems in the humid tropics, version 2.0. AB-DLO/C.T. de Wit Graduate school for Production Ecology, Quantitative Approaches in Systems Analysis No. 18, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  16. Bouman BAM, Jansen HGP, Schipper RA, Hengsdijk H, Nieuwenhuyse A (2000) Tools for land use analysis on different scales: with case studies for Costa Rica. Kluwer Academic Publishers, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  17. Brodie JE, De’ath G, Devlin MJ, Furnas M, Wright M (2007) Spatial and temporal patterns of near-surface chlorophyll a in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Mar Freshw Res 58:342–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brodie J, Lewis S, Bainbridge Z, Mitchell A, Waterhouse J, Kroon F (2009a) Target setting for pollutant discharge management of rivers in the Great Barrier Reef catchment area. Mar Freshw Res 60:1141–1149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brodie JE, Waterhouse J, Lewis SE, Bainbridge ZT Johnson J (2009b) Current loads of priority pollutants discharged from Great Barrier Reef Catchments to the Great Barrier Reef. Report 09/02, Australian Centre for Tropical Freshwater Research, James Cook University, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  20. Brodie JE, Devlin MJ, Haynes D, Waterhouse J (2011) Assessment of the eutrophication status of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon (Australia). Biogeochemistry. doi: 10.1007/s10533-010-9542-2
  21. Buchecker M, Hunziker M, Kienast F (2003) Participatory landscape development: overcoming social barriers to public involvement. Landsc Urban Plan 64:29–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bureau of Rural Sciences (2006) Guidelines for land use mapping in Australia: principles, procedures and definitions: a technical handbook supporting the Australian Collaborative Land Use Mapping Program. Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Australian Government, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  23. Caille F, Riera JL, Rodriguez-Labajos B, Middelkoop H, Rosell-Mele A (2007) Participatory scenario development for integrated assessment of nutrient flows in a Catalan river catchment. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:1843–1855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Castella JC (2009) Assessing the role of learning devices and geovisualisation tools for collective action in natural resource management: experiences from Vietnam. J Environ Manag 90:1313–1319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Castella JC, Trung TN, Boissau S (2005) Participatory simulation of land-use changes in the northern mountains of Vietnam: the combined use of an agent-based model, a role-playing game, and a geographic information system. Ecol Soc 10(1):27 [online] URL:
  26. Catterall CP, Kanowski J, Wardell-Johnson GW (2007) Biodiversity and new forests: interacting processes, prospects and pitfalls of rainforest restoration. In: Stork N, Turton T (eds) Living in a dynamic tropical forest landscape. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 510–525Google Scholar
  27. Costanza R (2003) A vision of the future of science: reintegrating the study of humans and the rest of nature. Futures 35:651–671Google Scholar
  28. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2008) Water quality of the Great Barrier Reef: distributions, effects on reef biota and trigger values for the protection of ecosystem health, research publication no. 89. Great Barrier Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  29. De’ath G, Fabricius KE (2010) Water quality as a regional driver of coral biodiversity and macroalgae on the Great Barrier Reef. Ecol Appl 20:840–850PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. DNRW (2007) Land Use (2004) in the Murray River catchment, Queensland (ANZLIC Page 0 Metadata). Department of Natural Resources and Water, Queensland Government, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  31. Drielsma M, Ferrier S (2006) Landscape scenario modelling of vegetation condition. Ecological Management and Restoration 7:45–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ESRI (1998) ESRI Shapefile Technical Description. An ESRI White Paper—July 1998. Available from Accessed 23 March 2010
  33. Faith DP, Ferrier S, Williams KJ (2008) Getting biodiversity intactness indices right: ensuring that “biodiversity” reflects “diversity”. Glob Change Biol 14:207–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fentie B, Joo M, Yu B, Hunter H, Marsh N, Carroll C, Dougall C (2005) Comparison of mean annual suspended loads estimated by the SedNet model and rating curves in the Fitzroy Catchment, Australia. In: Zerger A, Argent R (eds) MODSIM 2005 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. December, 2005, pp 1133–1139Google Scholar
  35. Ferrier S, Drielsma M (2010) Synthesis of pattern and process in biodiversity conservation assessment: as flexible whole-landscape modelling framework. Divers Distrib 16:386–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Forester J (1999) The deliberative practitioner. Encouraging participatory planning processes. MIT Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  37. Fry G, Tress B, Tress G (2007) Integrative landscape research: facts and challenges. In: Wu J, Hobbs R (eds) Key topics in landscape ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 246–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Funtowicz SO, Ravetz JR (1994) The worth of a songbird: ecological economics as a post-normal science. Ecol Econ 10:197–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Groß M, Hoffmann-Riem H (2005) Ecological restoration as a real-world experiment: designing robust implementation strategies in an urban environment. Public Underst Sci 14:269–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Guariguata MR, Ostertag R (2001) Neotropical secondary forest succession: changes in structural and functional characteristics. For Ecol Manag 148:185–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hacking T, Guthrie P (2008) A framework for clarifying the meaning of Triple Bottom-Line, Integrated, and Sustainability Assessment. Environ Impact Assess 28:73–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Henderson B, Bui E (2005) Sediment and nutrient transport models in ERA: determining uncertainty in deterministic models, LWA/MDBC Project UMO43—Report No 2, Land & Water Australia, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  43. Hengsdijk H, Nieuwenhuyse A, Bouman BAM (1998) LUCTOR: land use crop technical coefficient generator, version 2.0. AB-DLO/C.T. de Wit Graduate School for Production Ecology, Quantitative Approaches in Systems Analysis No. 17, WageningenGoogle Scholar
  44. Hirsch Hadorn G, Bradley D, Pohl C, Rist S, Wiesmann U (2006) Implications of transdisciplinarity for sustainability research. Ecol Econ 60:119–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huigen MGA (2004) First principles of the MameLuke multi-actor modelling framework for land use change, illustrated with a Philippine case study. J Environ Manag 72:5–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hulse DW, Gregory S, Baker J (2002) Willamette River Basin planning atlas. Oregon State University Press, CorvallisGoogle Scholar
  47. Kanowski J, Catterall CP, Wardell-Johnson GW, Proctor H, Reis T (2003) Development of forest structure on cleared rainforest land in eastern Australia under different styles of reforestation. For Ecol Manag 183:265–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Keating BA, Carberry PS, Hammer GL, Probert ME, Robertson MJ, Holzworth D, Huth NI, Hargreaves JNG, Meinke H, Hochman Z, McLean G, Verburg K, Snow V, Dimes JP, Silburn M, Wang E, Brown S, Bristow KL, Asseng S, Chapman S, McCown RL, Freebairn DM, Smith CJ (2003) An overview of APSIM, a model for farming systems simulation. Eur J Agron 18:267–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kemp JE, Lovatt RJ, Bahr JC, Kahler CP, Appelman CN (2007) Pre-clearing vegetation of the coastal lowlands of the Wet Tropics Bioregion, North Queensland. Cunninghamia 10:285–329Google Scholar
  50. Larson S (2007) Wellbeing and Livelihoods Survey of the Cardwell shire: report for the community. CSIRO, Water for a Healthy Country National Research Flagship, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  51. Latch P (2007) National recovery plan for the southern cassowary Casuarius casuarius johnsonii. Report to the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. Environmental Protection AgencyGoogle Scholar
  52. Letcher RA, Croke BFW, Jakeman AJ, Merritt WS (2006) An integrated modelling toolbox for water resources assessment and management in highland catchments: model description. Agric Syst 89:106–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Low-Choy S, O’Leary R, Mengersen K (2009) Elicitation by design in ecology: using expert opinion to inform priors for Bayesian statistical models. Ecology 90(1):265–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Luz F (2000) Participatory landscape ecology—a basis for acceptance and implementation. Landsc Urban Plan 50:157–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McAlpine CA, Seabrook LM, Rhodes JR, Maron M, Smith C, Bowen ME, Butler SA, Powell O, Ryan JG, Fyfe CT, Adams-Hosking C, Smith A, Robertson O, Howes A, Cattarino L (2010) Can a problem-solving approach strengthen landscape ecology’s contribution to sustainable landscape planning? Landscape Ecol 25:1155–1168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McKergow LA, Prosser IP, Grayson RB, Heiner D (2004a) Performance of grass and rainforest riparian buffers in the wet tropics, far North Queensland. 1. Riparian hydrology. Aust J Soil Res 42:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. McKergow LA, Prosser IP, Grayson RB, Heiner D (2004b) Performance of grass and rainforest riparian buffers in the wet tropics, Far North Queensland. 2. Water quality. Aust J Soil Res 42:485–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. McKergow LA, Prosser IP, Hughes AO, Brodie J (2005a) Sources of sediment to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Mar Pollut Bull 51:200–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McKergow LA, Prosser IP, Hughes AO, Brodie J (2005b) Regional scale nutrient modelling: exports to the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area. Mar Pollut Bull 51:186–199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Merritt WS, Croke BFW, Jakeman AJ, Letcher RA, Perez P (2004) A biophysical toolbox for assessment and management of land and water resources in rural catchments in Northern Thailand. Ecol Model 171:279–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Musacchio LR (2009) The scientific basis for the design of landscape sustainability: a conceptual framework for translational landscape research and practice of designed landscapes and the six Es of landscape sustainability. Landscape Ecol 24:101–993CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nassauer JI, Corry RC (2004) Using normative scenarios in landscape ecology. Landscape Ecol 19:343–356CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nassauer JI, Opdam P (2008) Design in science: extending the landscape ecology paradigm. Landscape Ecol 23:633–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Naveh Z (2000) What is holistic landscape ecology? A conceptual introduction. Landsc Urban Plan 50:7–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Naveh Z (2007) Landscape ecology and sustainability. Landscape Ecol 22:1437–1440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Neldner VJ, Wilson BA, Thompson EJ, Dillewaard HA (2005) Methodology for survey and mapping of regional ecosystems and vegetation communities in Queensland. Version 3.0. Queensland Herbarium. Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  67. Nicolson CR, Starfield AM, Kofinas GP, Kruse JA (2002) Ten heuristics for interdisciplinary modelling projects. Ecosystems 5:376–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nowotny H, Scott P, Gibbons M (2002) Re-thinking science—knowledge and the public in an age of uncertainty. Polity Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  69. NRMMC (2005) Directions for the national reserve system—a partnership approach. Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australian Government, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  70. Opdam P (2007) Deconstructing and reassembling the landscape system. Landscape Ecol 22:1445–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Opdam P (2010) Learning science from practice. Landscape Ecol 25:821–823CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pahl-Wostl C (2006) The importance of social learning in restoring the multifunctionality of rivers and floodplains. Ecol Soc 11, art10Google Scholar
  73. Pearson DM, Gorman JT (2010) Exploring the relevance of a landscape ecological paradigm for sustainable landscapes and livelihoods: a case application from the Northern Territory, Australia. Landscape Ecol 25:1169–1183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pitt G, Grounds S, van den Berg D, Denham R (2007) Mapping land use: land use change mapping from 1999 to 2004 for the Tully River catchment. Queensland Department of Natural Resources and Water, Brisbane, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  75. Potschin MB, Haines-Young RH (2006) Landscapes and sustainability. Landsc Urban Plan 75:155–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Queensland Herbarium (2007) Regional Ecosystem Description Database (REDD). Version 5.0. Updated November 2007. Environmental Protection Agency, Brisbane, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  77. Rahman JM, Seaton SP, Cuddy SM (2004) Making frameworks more useable: using model introspection and metadata to develop model processing tools. Environ Modell Softw 19:275–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Renn O, Webler T, Wiedeman P (eds) (1995) Fairness and competence in citizen participation; evaluating models for environmental discourse. Kluwer Academic Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  79. Roebeling PC, Bohnet I, Smith M, Westcott D, Kroon F, Hartcher M, Hodgen M, Vleeshouwer J (2005) Landscapes Toolkit for triple-bottom-line assessment of land use scenarios in Great Barrier Reef catchments. In: Zerger A, Argent R (eds) MODSIM 2005 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. December, 2005, pp 711–717Google Scholar
  80. Roebeling PC, Van Grieken ME, Webster AJ, Biggs J, Thorburn P (2009) Cost-effective water quality improvement in linked terrestrial and marine ecosystems: a spatial environmental-economic modelling approach. Mar Freshw Res 60:1150–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Roetter RP, Hoanh CT, Laborte AG, van Keulen H, van Ittersum MK, Dreiser C, van Diepen CA, de Ridder N, van Laar HH (2005) Integration of Systems Network (SysNet) tools for regional land use scenario analysis in Asia. Environ Modell Softw 20:291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Santelmann MV, White D, Freemark K, Nassauer JI, Eilers JM, Vache KB, Danielson BJ, Corry RC, Clark ME, Polasky S, Cruse RM, Sifneos J, Rustigian H, Coiner C, Wu J, Debinski D (2004) Assessing alternative futures for agriculture in Iowa, USA. Landscape Ecol 19:357–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Sarkar S, Pressey RL, Faith DP, Margules CR, Fuller T, Stoms DM, Moffett A, Wilson K, Williams KJ, Williams PH, Andelman S (2006) Biodiversity conservation planning tools: present status and challenges for the future. Annu Rev Environ Resour 31:123–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Schroeder B, Wood A, Hurney A, Panitz J (2007) Accelerating the adoption of best management practice nutrient management: wet tropics. BSES Limited/CSR, BundabergGoogle Scholar
  85. Sherman BS, Brodie JE, Cogle AL, Carroll C (2007) Appropriate use of catchment models for water quality target setting and land-use management. In: Webb BW, De Boer D (eds) Water quality and sediment behaviour of the future. Predictions for the 21st century. IAHS Publ. 314, IAHS Press, pp 239–250Google Scholar
  86. Smith CD, Heiner IJ, Murtha GG, Cannon MG (2004) Agricultural land suitability of the Wet Tropics Coast, North Queensland: Cardwell-Innisfail area. State of Queensland, Department of Natural Resources and Mines, Coorparoo DC, QueenslandGoogle Scholar
  87. Stoorvogel JJ, Antle JM (2001) Regional land use analysis: the development of operational tools. Agric Syst 70:623–640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Stoorvogel JJ, Antle JM, Crissman CC, Bowen W (2004) The tradeoff analysis model: integrated bio-physical and economic modeling of agricultural production systems. Agric Syst 80:43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Tabara JD, Pahl-Wostl C (2007) Sustainability learning in natural resource use and management. Ecol Soc 12(2):3 art3Google Scholar
  90. Tansey J, Carmichael J, VanWynsberghe R, Robinson J (2002) The future is not what it used to be: participatory integrated assessment in the Georgia Basin. Global Environ Change 12:97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Termorshuizen JW, Opdam P, Van Den Brink A (2007) Incorporating ecological sustainability in landscape planning. Landsc Urban Plan 79:374–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Thackway R, Lesslie R (2006) Reporting vegetation condition using the Vegetation Assets, States and Transitions (VAST) framework. Ecol Manag Restor 7:53–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Thorburn PJ (2004) Influences of N fertilizer management on off-site loss of water contaminants. In: Roberston LN, Troedson RJ (eds) Cane farming to improve water quality. SRDC technical report 1/2004. Brisbane, Australia, pp 32–34Google Scholar
  94. Thorburn PJ, Meier EA, Probert ME (2005) Modelling nitrogen dynamics in sugarcane systems: recent advances and applications. Field Crop Res 92:337–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Van Grieken ME, Thomas CT, Roebeling PC, Thorburn PJ (2011) Integrating economic drivers of social change into agricultural water quality improvement strategies. Agric Ecosyst Environ. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2011.06.013
  96. Valencia-Sandoval C, Flanders DN, Kozak RA (2010) Participatory landscape planning and sustainable community development: methodological observations from a case study in rural Mexico. Landsc Urban Plan 94:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Veldkamp A, Lambin EF (2001) Predicting land-use change. Agric Ecosyst Environ 85:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Verburg PH, Veldkamp A (2001) The role of spatially explicit models in land-use change research: a case study for cropping patterns in China. Agric Ecosyst Environ 85:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verburg PH, Veldkamp A, Rounsevell MDA (2006) Scenario-based studies of future land use in Europe. Agric Ecosyst Environ 114:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wilkinson S, Henderson RA, Chen Y, Sherman B, (2004) SedNet user Guide. Client report, CSIRO Land and Water, CanberraGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilkinson SN, Prosser IP, Rustomji P, Read AM (2009) Modelling and testing spatially distributed sediment budgets to relate erosion processes to suspended sediment yields. Environ Modell Softw 24:489–501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Williams KJ, Faith DP, Ferrier S, Hill R, Pert P (2009) Potential gaps in the complementary representation of regional ecosystems within protected areas of the Wet Tropics natural resource management planning region. In: Taylor R, Long S (eds) Proceedings of the 2008 marine and tropical sciences research facility annual conference, Cairns, pp 150–183Google Scholar
  103. Witte C, van den Berg D, Rowland T, O’Donnell T, Denham R, Pitt G, Simpson J (2006) Mapping land use in Queensland—Technical report on the 1999 land use map for Queensland, Department of Natural Resources, Mines and Water, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  104. Wooldridge S, Brodie JE, Furnas M (2006) Exposure of inner-shelf reefs to nutrient enriched runoff entering the Great Barrier Reef Lagoon: post European changes and the design of water quality targets. Mar Pollut Bull 52:1467–1479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wu JG (2006) Landscape ecology, cross-disciplinarity, and sustainability science. Landscape Ecol 21:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Iris C. Bohnet
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter C. Roebeling
    • 6
  • Kristen J. Williams
    • 7
  • Dean Holzworth
    • 4
  • Martijn E. van Grieken
    • 3
  • Petina L. Pert
    • 1
  • Frederieke J. Kroon
    • 5
  • David A. Westcott
    • 5
  • Jon Brodie
    • 2
  1. 1.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesCairnsAustralia
  2. 2.Catchment to Reef Research GroupJames Cook UniversityTownsvilleAustralia
  3. 3.CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, EcoSciences PrecinctBrisbaneAustralia
  4. 4.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesToowoombaAustralia
  5. 5.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesAthertonAustralia
  6. 6.Department of EnvironmentCESAM, University of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  7. 7.CSIRO Ecosystem SciencesCanberraAustralia

Personalised recommendations