Advertisement

Landscape Ecology

, Volume 25, Issue 10, pp 1505–1518 | Cite as

Rural housing is related to plant invasions in forests of southern Wisconsin, USA

  • Gregorio I. Gavier-PizarroEmail author
  • Volker C. Radeloff
  • Susan I. Stewart
  • Cynthia D. Huebner
  • Nicholas S. Keuler
Research Article

Abstract

Forests throughout the US are invaded by non-native invasive plants. Rural housing may contribute to non-native plant invasions by introducing plants via landscaping, and by creating habitat conditions favorable for invaders. The objective of this paper was to test the hypothesis that rural housing is a significant factor explaining the distribution of invasive non-native plants in temperate forests of the Midwestern US. In the Baraboo Hills, Wisconsin, we sampled 105 plots in forest interiors. We recorded richness and abundance of the most common invasive non-native plants and measured rural housing, human-caused landscape fragmentation (e.g. roads and forest edges), forest structure and topography. We used regression analysis to identify the variables more related to the distribution of non-native invasive plants (best subset and hierarchical partitioning analyses for richness and abundance and logistic regression for presence/absence of individual species). Housing variables had the strongest association with richness of non-native invasive plants along with distance to forest edge and elevation, while the number of houses in a 1 km buffer around each plot was the variable most strongly associated with abundance of non-native invasive plants. Rhamnus cathartica and Lonicera spp. were most strongly associated with rural housing and fragmentation. Berberis thumbergii and Rosa multiflora were associated with gentle slopes and low elevation, while Alliaria petiolata was associated with higher cover of native vegetation and stands with no recent logging history. Housing development inside or adjacent to forests of high conservation value and the use of non-native invasive plants for landscaping should be discouraged.

Keywords

Baraboo Hills Forest fragmentation Landscaping Midwestern forests Non-native invasive plants Rural housing Wisconsin 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank F. Beaudry, J. B. Zedler, M. G. Turner, E. L. Kruger, D. J. Mladenoff, the Associate Editor and two anonymous reviewers for valuable comments and suggestions on previous versions of the manuscript. A. Prishepov, M. Dubinin and P. C. Alcántara Concepción provided valuable assistance in the field. We gratefully acknowledge support for this research by the USDA Forest Service Northern Research Station, and by a Fulbright/Organization of American States Fellowship to G. Gavier-Pizarro.

References

  1. Antrop M (2004) Landscape change and the urbanization process in Europe. Landsc Urban Plan 67:9–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Archibold OW, Brooks D, Delanoy L (1997) An investigation of the invasive shrub European buckthorn, Rhamnus cathartica L., near Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Can Field Nat 111:617–621Google Scholar
  3. Bartuszevige AM, Gorchov DL, Raab L (2006) The relative importance of landscape and community features in the invasion of an exotic shrub in a fragmented landscape. Ecography 29:213–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brown DG, Johnson KM, Loveland TR, Theobald DM (2005) Rural land-use trends in the conterminous United States, 1950–2000. Ecol Appl 15:1851–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canfield RH (1941) Application of the line interception method in sampling range vegetation. J For 39:388–394Google Scholar
  6. Chatterjee S, Hadi AS, Price B (2000) Regression analysis by example. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Cox G (1999) Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems. Island Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  8. Czarapata EJ (2005) Invasive plants of the Upper Midwest. An illustrated guide to their identification and control. University of Wisconsin Press, MadisonGoogle Scholar
  9. Dott R, Attig J (2004) Roadside geology of Wisconsin. Mountain Press Publishing Company, MissoulaGoogle Scholar
  10. Duguay S, Eigenbrod F, Fahrig L (2007) Effects of surrounding urbanization on non-native flora in small forest patches. Landscape Ecol 22:589–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasions by animals and plants. The University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  12. Elzinga CL, Salzer WD, Willoughby JW (1998) Measuring and monitoring plant populations. BLM Technical Reference 1730-1. BLM/RS/ST-98/005_1730. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, COGoogle Scholar
  13. ESRI (Environmental Systems Research Institute) (2006) ArcGIS. Release 9.2. ESRI, RedlandsGoogle Scholar
  14. Etchberger RC, Krausman PR (1997) Evaluation of five methods for measuring desert vegetation. Wildl Soc Bull 25:604–609Google Scholar
  15. Fraterrigo JM, Turner MG, Pearson SM (2006) Interactions between past land use, life-history traits and understory spatial heterogeneity. Landscape Ecol 21:777–790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fraver S (1994) Vegetation responses along edge-to-interior gradients in the mixed hardwood forests of the Roanoke River basin, North Carolina. Conserv Biol 8:822–832CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gleason HA, Cronquist A (1991) Manual of vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, 2nd edn. New York Botanical GardenGoogle Scholar
  18. Gonzalez-Abraham CE, Radeloff VC, Hammer RB, Hawbaker TJ, Stewart SI, Clayton MK (2007) Building patterns and landscape fragmentation in northern Wisconsin, USA. Landscape Ecol 22:217–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gude PH, Hansen AJ, Jones DA (2007) Biodiversity consequences of alternative future land use scenarios in Greater Yellowstone. Ecol Appl 17:1004–1018CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hammer RB, Stewart SI, Winkler R, Radeloff VC, Voss P (2004) Characterizing dynamic spatial and temporal residential density patterns from 1940–1990 across the North Central United States. Landsc Urban Plan 69:183–199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hansen AJ, Knight RL, Marzluff JM, Powell S, Brown K, Gude PH, Jones A (2005) Effects of exurban development on biodiversity: patterns, mechanisms, and research needs. Ecol Appl 6:1893–1905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hawbaker TJ, Radeloff VC, Hammer RB, Clayton MK (2005) Road density and landscape pattern in relation to housing density, land ownership, land cover, and soils. Landscape Ecol 20:609–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hawbaker TJ, Radeloff VC, Gonzalez-Abraham CE, Hammer RB, Clayton MK (2006) Changes in the road network, relationships with housing development, and the effects on landscape pattern in northern Wisconsin: 1937 to 1999. Ecol Appl 16:1222–1237CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Hobbs RJ, Huenneke LF (1992) Disturbance, diversity, and invasion—implications for conservations. Conserv Biol 6:324–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hosmer DW, Hosmer T, LeCessie S, Lemeshow S (1997) A comparison of goodness-of-fit tests for the logistic regression model. Stat Med 16:965–980CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin (2003) IPAW Working list of the invasive plants of Wisconsin—March 2003: a call for comments and information. Plants out of place. The newsletter of the Invasive Plants Association of Wisconsin. Issue 4, March 2003Google Scholar
  27. Isaaks E, Srivastava M (1989) An introduction to applied geostatistics. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Kaplan R, Austin ME (2004) Out in the country: sprawl and the quest for nature nearby. Landsc Urban Plan 69:235–243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Knops JMH, Griffin JR, Royalty AC (1995) Introduced and native plants of the Hastings reservation, central coastal California—a comparison. Biol Conserv 71:115–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kowarik I (1990) Some responses of flora and vegetation to urbanization in central Europe. In: Sukopp H, Hejny S, Kowarik I (eds) Urban ecology. SPB Academic Publishing, The Hague, pp 45–74Google Scholar
  31. Lange K (1998) Flora of Sauk county and Caledonia township, Columbia county, South Central Wisconsin. Technical Bulletin 180. Department of Natural ResourcesGoogle Scholar
  32. Lenth BA, Knight RL, Gilgert WC (2006) Conservation value of clustered housing developments. Conserv Biol 20:1445–1456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Lepczyk CA, Hammer RB, Stewart SI, Radeloff VC (2007) Spatiotemporal dynamics of housing growth hotspots in the North Central US from 1940 to 2000. Landscape Ecol 22:939–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lonsdale W (1999) Global patterns of plant invasions and the concept of invisibility. Ecology 80:1522–1536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Luken JO, Kuddes LM, Tholemeier TC, Haller DM (1997) Comparative responses of Lonicera maackii (Amur honeysuckle) and Lindera benzoin (spicebush) to increased light. Am Midl Nat 138:331–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lundgren MR, Small CJ, Dreyer GD (2004) Influence of land use and site characteristics on invasive plant abundance in the Quinebaug Highlands of southern New England. Northeast Nat 11:313–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mack RN, Erneberg M (2002) The United States naturalized flora: largely the product of deliberate introductions. Ann Mo Bot Gard 89:176–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MacNally R (2002) Multiple regression and inference in ecology and conservation biology: further comments on identifying important predictor variables. Biodivers Conserv 11:1397–1401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McCune B, Grace J (2002) Analysis of ecological communities. MJM Software Design, Gleneden BeachGoogle Scholar
  40. Meekins JF, McCarthy BC (2000) Responses of the biennial forest herb Alliaria petiolata to variation in population density, nutrient addition and light availability. J Ecol 88:447–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller A (1990) Subset selection in regression. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  42. Moffatt SF, McLachlan SM (2004) Understory indicators of disturbance for riparian forests along an urban–rural gradient in Manitoba. Ecol Indic 4:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Moffatt SF, McLachlan SM, Kenkel NC (2004) Impacts of land use on riparian forest along an urban–rural gradient in southern Manitoba. Plant Ecol 174:119–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Morse LE, Kartesz JT, Kutner LS (1995) Native vascular plants. In: LaRoe ET, Farris GS, Puckett CE, Doran PD, Mac MJ (eds) Our Living Resources: a report to the nation on the distribution, abundance, and health of U.S. plants, animals and ecosystems. U.S. Department of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC, pp 205–209Google Scholar
  45. Mossman MJ, Lange KI (1982) Breeding birds of the Baraboo Hills of Wisconsin: their history, distribution, and ecology. Department of Natural Resources and Wisconsin Society for Ornithology, Madison, WIGoogle Scholar
  46. National Invasive Species Council (2008) 2008–2012 National Invasive Species Management Plan, 35 pp. http://www.invasivespeciesinfo.gov/council/nmp.shtml. Accessed Dec 2007
  47. National Parks Service (2005) Weeds gone wild: alien plant invaders of natural areas. Plant Conservation Alliance. http://www.nps.gov/plants/alien/bkgd.htm. Accessed Jan 2009
  48. Pimentel D, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2005) Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecol Econ 52:273–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Predick KI, Turner MG (2008) Landscape configuration and flood frequency influence invasive shrubs in floodplain forests of the Wisconsin River (USA). J Ecol 96:91–102Google Scholar
  50. Radeloff VC, Hammer RB, Stewart SI, Fried JS, Holcomb SS, Mckeefry JF (2005) The wildland–urban interface in the United States. Ecol Appl 15:799–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Radeloff VC, Stewart SI, Hawbaker TJ, Gimmi U, Pidgeon AM, Flather CH, Hammer RB, Helmers DP (2010) Housing growth in and near United States’ protected areas limits their conservation value. Proc Natl Acad Sci 107:140–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rapoport E (1993) The process of plant colonization in small settlements and large cities. In: McDonnel M, Picket S (eds) Humans as components of ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 190–207Google Scholar
  53. Reichard SH, White P (2001) Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. Bioscience 51:103–113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Richardson MD, Pyšek P, Rejmánek M, Barbour MG, Panetta FD, West CJ (2000) Naturalizations and invasions of alien plants: concepts and definitions. Divers Distrib 6:93–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Song IJ, Hong SK, Kim HO, Byun B, Gin Y (2005) The pattern of landscape patches and invasion of naturalized plants in developed areas of urban Seoul. Landsc Urban Plan 70:205–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stinson K, Kaufman S, Durbin L, Lowenstein F (2007) Impacts of garlic mustard invasion on a forest understory community. Northeast Nat 14:73–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Sullivan JJ, Timmins SM, Williams PA (2005) Movement of exotic plants into coastal native forests from gardens in northern New Zealand. N Z J Ecol 29:1–10Google Scholar
  58. Sutherland WJ (1996) Ecological census techniques: a handbook. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  59. Theobald DM (2001) Land-use dynamics beyond the American urban fringes. Geogr Rev 91:544–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Theobald DM (2005) Landscape patterns of exurban growth in the USA from 1980 to 2020. Ecol Soc 10:32 (online)Google Scholar
  61. Theobald DM, Miller JR, Hobbs NT (1997) Estimating the cumulative effects of development on wildlife habitat. Landsc Urban Plan 39:25–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Theoharides KA, Dukes JS (2007) Plant invasion across space and time: factors affecting nonindigenous species success during four stages of invasion. New Phytol 176:256–273CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Trombulak SC, Frissell CA (2000) Review of ecological effects of roads on terrestrial and aquatic communities. Conserv Biol 14:18–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Turner MG (1989) Landscape ecology—the effect of pattern on process. Annu Rev Ecol Evol Syst 20:171–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. van Ruremonde RHAC, Kalkhoven JTR (1991) Effects of woodlot isolation on the dispersion of plants with fleshy fruits. J Veg Sci 2:377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Vila M, Burriel JA, Pino J, Chamizo J, Llach E, Porterias M, Vives M (2003) Association between Opuntia species invasion and changes in land-cover in the Mediterranean region. Glob Chang Biol 9:1234–1239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Vitousek PM, D’Antonio CM, Loope LL, Westbrooks R (1996) Biological invasions as global environmental change. Am Sci 84:468–478Google Scholar
  68. Vogelmann JE, Howard SM, Yang LM, Larson CR, Wylie BK, Van Driel N (2001) Completion of the 1990s National Land Cover Data set for the conterminous United States from Landsat Thematic Mapper data and ancillary data sources. Photogramm Eng Rem Sens 67:650–684Google Scholar
  69. Waldner LS (2008) The kudzu connection: exploring the link between land use and invasive species. Land Use Policy 25:399–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wania A, Kuhn I, Klotz S (2006) Plant richness patterns in agricultural and urban landscapes in Central Germany—spatial gradients of species richness. Landsc Urban Plan 75:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Webster CR, Jenkins MA, Jose S (2006) Woody invaders and the challenges they pose to forest ecosystems in the eastern United States. J For 104:366–374Google Scholar
  72. Whittingham M, Ph Stephens, Bradbury R, Freckleton R (2006) Why do we still use stepwise modelling in ecology and behaviour? J Anim Ecol 75:1182–1189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Williamson MH, Fitter A (1996) The characters of successful invaders. Biol Conserv 78:163–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. With KA (2002) The landscape ecology of invasive spread. Conserv Biol 16:1192–1203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wittemyer G, Elsen P, Bean WT, Burton ACO, Brashares JS (2008) Accelerated human population growth at protected area edges. Science 321:123–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Wolfe BE, Klironomos JN (2005) Breaking new ground: soil communities and exotic plant invasion. Bioscience 55:477–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gregorio I. Gavier-Pizarro
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Volker C. Radeloff
    • 1
  • Susan I. Stewart
    • 2
  • Cynthia D. Huebner
    • 3
  • Nicholas S. Keuler
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Forest and Wildlife EcologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  2. 2.USDA-Forest Service Northern Research StationEvanstonUSA
  3. 3.USDA-Forest Service Northern Research StationMorgantownUSA
  4. 4.Department of StatisticsUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA
  5. 5.Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria (INTA)Centro de Investigación en Recursos Naturales (CIRN-IRB)Buenos AiresArgentina

Personalised recommendations