Identifying future research needs in landscape genetics: where to from here?
Landscape genetics is an emerging interdisciplinary field that combines methods and concepts from population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. The interest in landscape genetics is steadily increasing, and the field is evolving rapidly. We here outline four major challenges for future landscape genetic research that were identified during an international landscape genetics workshop. These challenges include (1) the identification of appropriate spatial and temporal scales; (2) current analytical limitations; (3) the expansion of the current focus in landscape genetics; and (4) interdisciplinary communication and education. Addressing these research challenges will greatly improve landscape genetic applications, and positively contribute to the future growth of this promising field.
KeywordsLandscape resistance Adaptive genetic variation Gene flow Single-nucleotide polymorphisms Spatial heterogeneity Spatio-temporal scale
- Balkenhol N, Waits LP, Dezzani R (2009) Statistical approaches in landscape genetics: an evaluation of methods for linking landscape and genetic data. Ecography. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.05807.x (in press)
- Cushman SA, McKelvey KS, Schwartz MK (2009) Using empirically derived source-destination models to map regional conservation corridors. Conserv Biol. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2008.01111.x (in press)
- Davies KF, Gascon C, Margules CR (2001) Habitat fragmentation: consequences, management, and future research priorities. In: Soule ME, Orians G (eds) Conservation biology: research priorities for the next decade. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 81–98Google Scholar
- Futuyma DJ (1997) Evolutionary biology. Sinauer, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
- Kamm U (2008) Landscape genetics of a rare, naturally scattered, temperate forest tree (Sorbus domestica). PhD-thesis, ETH Zürich, Zürich, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar
- Mayr E (1954) Change of genetic environment and evolution. In: Huxley J, Hardy AC, Ford EB (eds) Evolution as a process. Allen and Unwin, London, pp 157–180Google Scholar
- Mayr E (1988) Processes of speciation in animals. In: Mayr E (ed) Towards a new philosophy of biology: observations of an evolutionist. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, pp 364–382Google Scholar
- McRae BH (2006) Isolation by resistance. Evol Int J Org Evol 60:1551–1561Google Scholar
- Petit R, Vendramin GG (2007) Plant phylogeography based on organelle genes: an introduction. In: Weiss S, Ferrand N (eds) Phylogeography of Southern European refugia—evolutionary perspectives on the origins and conservation of European biodiversity. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 23–97Google Scholar
- Schlesinger WH, Clark JS, Mohan JE, Reid CD (2001) Global environmental change: effects on biodiversity. In: Soule ME, Orians G (eds) Conservation biology: research priorities for the next decade. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 175–224Google Scholar
- Vandergast AG, Bohonak AJ, Weissman DB, Fisher RN (2007) Understanding the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation in the context of evolutionary history: phylogeography and landscape genetics of a southern California endemic jerusalem cricket (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae: Stenopelmatus). Mol Ecol 16:977–992. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.03216.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wright S (1977) Evolution and the genetics of populations. University of Chicago Press, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Wu J (2007) Scale and scaling: a cross-disciplinary perspective. In: Wu J, Hobbs RJ (eds) Key topics in landscape ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 115–142Google Scholar