Spatial and Seasonal Patterns of Cattle Habitat use in a Mountain Wooded Pasture
Research Article Received: 07 June 2004 Accepted: 23 June 2005 Abstract
Management-oriented models of cattle habitat use often treat grazing pressure as a single variable summarizing all cattle activities. This paper addresses the following questions: How does the spatial pattern of cattle effects vary between cattle activities in a highly heterogeneous landscape? Do these patterns change over the grazing season as forage availability decreases? What are the respective roles of natural and management-introduced structures? We estimated the intensity of herbage removal, dung deposition and trampling after each of three grazing periods on a grid of 25 m ×25 m cells covering an entire paddock in the Swiss Jura Mountains. We found no significant positive correlations between cattle effects. Spatial patterns weakened through the season for grazing and trampling, whereas dunging patterns changed little between grazing periods. Redundancy analysis showed that different cattle effects were correlated with different environmental variables and that the importance of management-introduced variables was highest for herbage removal. Autocorrelograms and partial redundancy analyses using principal coordinates of neighbour matrices suggested that dunging patterns were more coarse-grained than the others. Systematic differences in the spatial and seasonal patterns of cattle effects may result in complex interactions with vegetation involving feedback effects through nutrient shift, with strong implications for ecosystem management. In heterogeneous environments, such as pasture-woodland landscapes, spatially explicit models of vegetation dynamics need to model cattle effects separately.
Keywords Autocorrelation Dung deposition Herbage removal Jura mountains Principal coordinates of neighbour matrices Redundancy analysis Silvopastoral landscape Switzerland Trampling Variance partitioning References Anderson, D.M., Kothmann, M.M. 1980 Relationship of distance traveled with diet and weather for hereford heifers J. Range Manage. 33 217 220 Google Scholar Bailey, D.W., Gross, J.E., Laca, E.A., Rittenhouse, L.R., Coughenour, M.B., Swift, D.M., Sims, P.L. 1996 Mechanisms that result in large herbivore grazing distribution patterns J. Range Manage. 49 386 400 Google Scholar Bailey, D.W., Kress, D.D., Anderson, D.C., Boss, D.L., Miller, E.T. 2001 Relationships between terrain use and performance of beef cows grazing foothill rangeland J. Animal Sci. 79 1883 1891 Google Scholar Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Drapeau, P. 1992 Partialling out the spatial components of ecological variation Ecology 73 1045 1055 Google Scholar
Borcard D. and Legendre P. 2001. SpaceMaker Program. Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, URL
Borcard, D., Legendre, P. 2002 All-scale spatial analysis of ecological data by means of principal coordinates of neighbour matrices Ecol. Model. 153 51 68 CrossRef Google Scholar Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Avois-Jacquet, C., Tuomisto, H. 2004 Dissecting the spatial structure of ecological data at multiple scales Ecology 85 1826 1832 Google Scholar Brind’Amour, A., Boisclair, D., Legendre, P., Borcard, D. 2005 Multiscale spatial distribution of a littoral fish community in relation to environmental variables Limnol. Oceanogr. 50 465 479 Google Scholar Cook, C.W. 1966 Factors affecting utilization of mountain slopes by cattle J. Range Manage. 19 200 204 Google Scholar Costa, G., Mosimann, E., Zagni, C. 1990 Effet de la présence nocturne au pâturage sur les performances d’un troupeau laitier et sur ses restitutions à l’alpage Fourrages 123 305 311 Google Scholar Coughenour, M.B. 1991 Spatial components of plant–herbivore interactions in pastoral, ranching, and native ungulate ecosystems J. Range Manage. 44 530 542 Google Scholar Cousins, S.A.O., Lavorel, S., Davies, I. 2003 Modelling the effects of landscape pattern and grazing regimes on the persistence of plant species with high conservation value in grasslands in south-eastern Sweden Landscape Ecol. 18 315 332 CrossRef Google Scholar Deckers, J.A. Nachtergaele, F.O. Spaargaren, O.C. eds. 1998World Reference Base for Soil Resources: Introduction Publishing Company Acco Leuven, The Netherlands Google Scholar Dungan, J.L., Perry, J.N., Dale, M.R.T., Legendre, P., Citron-Pousty, S., Fortin, M.J., Jakomulska, A., Miriti, M., Rosenberg, M.S. 2002 A balanced view of scale in spatial statistical analysis Ecography 25 626 640 CrossRef Google Scholar Dutilleul, P. 1993 Modifying the t test for assessing the correlation between two spatial processes Biometrics 49 305 314 Google Scholar Etienne, M. 1996Western European Silvopastoral Systems INRA Editions Paris, France Google Scholar Gander, A., Rockmann, A., Strehler, C., Güsewell, S. 2003 Habitat use by Scottish Highland cattle in a lakeshore wetland Bull. Geobot. Inst. ETH 69 3 13 Google Scholar Gillet, F., Besson, O., Gobat, J.M. 2002 PATUMOD: a compartment model of vegetation dynamics in wooded pastures Ecol. Model. 187 267 290 Google Scholar Gillet, F., Gallandat, J.D. 1996 Integrated synusial phytosociology: some notes on a new, multiscalar approach to vegetation analysis J. Veg. Sci. 7 13 18 Google Scholar Hahn, B.D., Richardson, F.D., Starfield, A.M. 1999 Frame-based modelling as a method of simulating rangeland production systems in the long term Agricult. Syst. 62 29 49 Google Scholar Hart, R.H., Bissio, J., Samuel, M.J., Waggoner, J.W. 1993 Grazing systems, pasture sizeand cattle grazing behaviordistribution and gains J. Range Manage. 46 81 87 Google Scholar Havlicek, E., Gobat, J.M. 1996 Les apports éoliens dans les sols du Jura: état des connaissances et nouvelles données en pâturages boisés Etude et Gestion des Sols 3 167 178 Google Scholar Hester, A.J., Baillie, G.J. 1998 Spatial and temporal patterns of heather use by sheep and red deer within natural heather/grass mosaics J. Appl. Ecol. 35 772 784 Google Scholar Jelinski, D.E., Wu, J. 1996 The modifiable areal unit problem and implications for landscape ecology Landscape Ecol. 11 129 140 Google Scholar
Jewell P. 2002. Impact of cattle grazing upon vegetation of an Alpine pasture. Ph.D. Thesis. ETHZ, Zurich, Switzerland, 304 pp.
Google Scholar Kohler, F., Gillet, F., Gobat, J.-M., Buttler, A. 2004 Seasonal vegetation changes in mountain pastures due to simulated effects of cattle activity J. Veg. Sci. 15 143 150 Google Scholar Legendre, P. 1993 Spatial autocorrelation: trouble or new paradigm? Ecology 74 1659 1673 Google Scholar
Legendre P. 2001. Program Mod_t_test. Département de sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal.URL
Legendre, P., Legendre, L. 1998Numerical Ecology, 2nd English edition Elsevier Science BV Amsterdam, The Netherlands Google Scholar Marsh, R., Campling, R.C. 1970 Fouling of pastures by dung Herbage Abstracts 40 123 130 Google Scholar McGechan, M.B., Topp, C.F.E. 2004 Modelling environmental impacts of deposition of excreted nitrogen by grazing dairy cows Agricult. Ecosyst. Environ. 103 149 164 Google Scholar Miller, R.F., Krueger, W.C. 1976 Cattle use on summer foothill rangelands in Northeastern Oregon J. Range. Manage. 29 367 371 Google Scholar Mitlohner, F.M., Morrow, J.L., Dailey, J.W., Wilson, S.C., Galyean, M.L., Miller, M.F., McGlone, J.J. 2001 Shade and water misting effects on behaviorphysiology, performanceand carcass traits of heat-stressed feedlot cattle J. Animal Sci. 79 2327 2335 Google Scholar Økland, R.H., Eilertsen, O. 1994 Canonical correspondence analysis with variation partitioning: some comments and an application J. Veg. Sci. 5 117 126 Google Scholar Olff, H., Ritchie, M.E. 1998 Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity Trends Ecol. Evol. 13 261 265 CrossRef Google Scholar Osuji, P.O. 1974 The physiology of eating and the energy expenditure of the ruminant at pasture J. Range Manage. 27 437 443 Google Scholar Owens, M.K., Launchbaugh, K.L., Holloway, J.W. 1991 Pasture characteristics affecting spatial-distribution of utilization by cattle in mixed brush communities J. Range Manage. 44 118 123 Google Scholar Perrenoud, A., Känzig-Schoch, U., Schneider, O., Wettstein, O. 2003Exploitation durable des pâturages boisés Editions Haupt Zürich, Switzerland Google Scholar Petersen, R.G., Lucas, H.L., Woodhouse, W.W. 1956 The distribution of excreta by freely grazing cattle and its effect on pasture fertility. I. Excretal distribution Agron. J. 48 440 444 Google Scholar Peterson, P.R., Gerrish, J.R. 1996 Grazing systems and spatial distribution of nutrients in pastures: livestock management considerations Joost, R.E. Roberts, C.A. eds. Nutrient Cycling in Forage Systems Potash and Phosphate Institute and the Foundation for Agronomy Research Manhattan, Kansas, USA 203 212 Google Scholar Peterson, R.A., Woolfolk, E.J. 1955 Behavior of hereford cows and calves on short grass range J. Range Manage. 8 51 57 Google Scholar Pinchak, W.E., Smith, M.A., Hart, R.H., Waggoner, J.W. 1991 Beef-cattle distribution patterns on foothill range J. Range Manage. 44 267 275 Google Scholar Pratt, R.M., Putman, R.J., Ekins, J.R., Edwards, P.J. 1986 Use of habitat by free-ranging cattle and ponies in the New ForestSouthern England J. Appl. Ecol. 23 539 557 Google Scholar Putman, R.J., Pratt, R.M., Ekins, J.R., Edwards, P.J. 1987 Food and feeding-behavior of cattle and ponies in the New ForestHampshire J. Appl. Ecol. 24 369 380 Google Scholar
R Development Core Team. 2004. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, ViennaAustria. URL
Rice, R.W., MacNeil, M.D., Jenkins, T.G., Koong, L.J. 1983 Simulation of the herbage/animal interface of grazioso land Lauenroth, W.K. Skogerboe, G.V. Flug, M. eds. Analysis of Ecological Systems: State-of-the-Art in Ecological Modeling. Developments in Ecological Modelling 5. Elsevier Amsterdam, The Netherlands 475 488 Google Scholar Roath, L.R., Krueger, W.C. 1982 Cattle grazing and behavior on a forested range J. Range Manage. 35 332 338 Google Scholar Roovers, P., Verheyen, K., Hermy, M., Gulink, H. 2004 Experimental trampling and vegetation recovery in some forest and heathland communities Appl. Veg. Sci. 7 111 118 Google Scholar Schutz, M., Risch, A.C., Leuzinger, E., Krusi, B.O., Achermann, G. 2003 Impact of herbivory by red deer ( Cervus elaphus L.) on patterns and processes in subalpine grasslands in the Swiss National Park Forest Ecol. Manage. 181 177 188 Google Scholar Senft, R.L., Coughenour, M.B., Bailey, D.W., Rittenhouse, L.R., Sala, O.E., Swift, D.M. 1987 Large herbivore foraging and ecological hierarchies BioScience 37 789 797 Google Scholar Senft, R.L., Rittenhouse, L.R., Woodmansee, R.G. 1985 Factors influencing patterns of cattle grazing behavior on shortgrass steppe J. Range Manage. 38 82 87 Google Scholar Shiyomi, M., Tsuiki, M. 1999 Model for the spatial pattern formed by a small herd in grazing cattle Ecol. Model. 119 231 238 CrossRef Google Scholar Tate, K.W., Atwill, E.R., McDougald, N.K., George, M.R. 2003 Spatial and temporal patterns of cattle feces deposition on rangeland J. Range Manage. 56 432 438 Google Scholar ter Braak, C.J.F., Smilauer, P. 2002CANOCO Reference Manual and CanoDraw for Windows User's Guide: Software for Canonical Community Ordination (version 4.5) Microcomputer Power Ithaca, New York, USA Google Scholar Thompson, C.M., McGarigal, K. 2002 The influence of research scale on bald eagle habitat selection along the lower Hudson RiverNew York (USA) Landscape Ecol. 17 569 586 CrossRef Google Scholar Turner, M.G. 1989 Landscape ecology: the effect of pattern on process Annu. Rev. Ecol. System. 20 171 197 Google Scholar Turner, M.G., Gardner, R.H., O’Neill, R.V. 2001Landscape Ecology in Theory and Practice: Pattern and Process Springer-Verlag New York, NY, USA Google Scholar Oene, H., Deursen, E.J.M., Berendse, F. 1999 Plant–herbivores interaction and its consequences for succession in wetland ecosystems: a modelling approach Ecosystems 2 122 138 CrossRef Google Scholar Rees, H., Hutson, G.D. 1983 The behavior of free-ranging cattle on an alpine range in Australia J. Range Manage. 36 740 743 Google Scholar
Verweij P.A. 1995. Spatial and temporal modelling of vegetation patterns. Burning and grazing in the paramo of Los Nevados National Park, Colombia. Ph.D. Thesis. International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation: Enschede, The Netherlands, 234 pp.
Google Scholar Weber, G.E., Jeltsch, F., Rooyen, N., Milton, S.J. 1998 Simulated long-term vegetation response to grazing heterogeneity in semi-arid rangelands J. Appl. Ecol. 35 687 699 Google Scholar White, S.L., Sheffield, R.E., Washburn, S.P., King, L.D., Green, J.T. 2001 Spatial and time distribution of dairy cattle excreta in an intensive pasture system J. Environ. Qual. 30 2180 2187 PubMed Google Scholar Wiens, J.A. 1989 Spatial scaling in ecology Funct. Ecol. 3 385 397 Google Scholar Wu, J. 2004 Effects of changing scale on landscape pattern analysis: scaling relations Landscape Ecol. 19 125 138 CrossRef Google Scholar Wu, J., David, J.L. 2002 A spatially explicit hierarchical approach to modelling complex ecological systems: theory and applications Ecol. Model. 153 7 26 Google Scholar Wu, J., Hobbs, R. 2002 Key issues and research priorities in landscape ecology: an idiosyncratic synthesis Landscape Ecol. 17 355 365 Google Scholar