Landscape Ecology

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 811–826

Seismic Cutlines, Changing Landscape Metrics and Grizzly Bear Landscape use in Alberta

  • Julia Linke
  • Steven E. Franklin
  • Falk Huettmann
  • Gordon B. Stenhouse
Research Article


Besides providing habitat to the grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) and other wildlife, the Rocky Mountain foothills of Alberta, Canada hosts considerable mining, seismic oil and gas exploration and production, and forest harvesting activities. Worldwide, such human activities influence the configuration and composition of the landscape. We assessed seismic cutline effects on landscape structure and grizzly bear use during early summer of 1999 and 2000. We studied five female and two male bears, which were GPS-collared in the spring following den emergence. The area available to this population was stratified into 49 km2 hexagon-shaped sub-landscapes. The scale of this stratification was determined by patterns of bear movement. Fourteen compositional and configurational landscape metrics were calculated within each landscape unit, and bear use points were pooled or ‘binned’ within each unit. Landscape use was related to landscape metrics using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM). We found that seismic cutline proportion did not explain landscape use by grizzly bears; however secondary effects of cutlines on landscape structure did. Declining use was mainly associated with increasing proportions of closed forest, and increasing variation of inter-patch distances, while use was mainly increasing with increasing mean patch size. An earlier investigation had demonstrated that adding seismic cutlines to grizzly bear habitat caused increases in the variation of inter-patch distances. Since the landscape structure of this grizzly bear population will continue to change as a function of increased levels of resource extraction activities in the near future, it is crucial to further study the detailed meaning of landscape structure at the large and small scale for effective conservation efforts.


Binning Generalized linear models (GLM) GPS locations Landscape configuration Landscape ecology Landscape structure Satellite imagery Seismic cutlines Ursus arctos 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Box, G.E.P., Jenkins, G.M. 1970Time Series Analysis: Forecasting and ControlHolden-DayLondon, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  2. Boyce, M.S., McDonald, L.L. 1999Relating populations to habitats using resource selection functionsTrends Ecol. Evol.14268272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Burnham, K.P., Anderson, D.R. 2002Model Selection and Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach2Springer-VerlagNew York, New York, USAGoogle Scholar
  4. Chapin, T.G., Harrison, D.J., Katnik, D.D. 1998Influence of landscape pattern on habitat use by American Marten in and industrial forestConserv. Biol.1213271337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Davidson, C. 1998Issues in measuring landscape fragmentationWildlife Soc. Bull.263237Google Scholar
  6. Diaz, N.M. 1996Landscape metrics. A new tool for forest ecologistsJ. Forest.941216Google Scholar
  7. Evans, I.S. 1972

    General geomorphometry, derivatives of elevation, and descriptive statistics

    Chorley, R.J. eds. Spatial Analysis in GeomorphologyMethuenLondon1790
    Google Scholar
  8. Forman, R.T.T. 1997Land Mosaics, The Ecology of Landscapes and RegionsCambridge University PressCambridgeUnited KingdomGoogle Scholar
  9. Fortin, M-J. 1999

    Spatial statistics in landscape ecology

    Klopatek, J.M.Gardner, R.H. eds. Landscape Ecological Analysis, Issues and ApplicationsSpringer VerlagNew York
    Google Scholar
  10. Frair Jacqueline, L., Nielsen, S.E., Merrill, E.H., Lele, S.R., Boyce, M.S., Munro, R.H.M., Stenhouse, G.B., Beyer, H.L. 2004Removing GPS-collar bias in habitat selection studiesJ. Appl. Ecol.41201212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Franklin, S.E., Stenhouse, G.B., Hansen, M.J., Popplewell, C.C., Dechka, J.A., Peddle, D.R. 2001An integrated decision tree approach (IDTA) to mapping landcover using satellite remote sensing in support of grizzly bear habitat analysis in the Alberta Yellowhead EcosystemCan. J. Remote Sensing27579591Google Scholar
  12. Frohn, R.C. 1998Remote Sensing for Landscape Ecology. New Metric Indicators for Monitoring. Modeling, and assessment of EcosystemsLewis PublishersNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Gibeau, M.L. 2000A Conservation Biology Approach to Management of Grizzly Bears in Banff National Park, AlbertaUniversity of CalgaryCalgary, ABCanada129PhD Thesis.Google Scholar
  14. Gottschalk T., Huettmann F. and Ehlers M. 2005. Thirty years of analyzing and modelling avian habitat relationships using satellite imagery data: a review. Int. J. Remote Sensing (in press).Google Scholar
  15. Hamer, D.Herrero, S. eds. 1983Ecological Studies of the Grizzly Bear in Banff National Park. Parks Canada Contract WR 4–80University of CalgaryCalgary, AlbertaGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamer, D., Herrero, S. 1987Grizzly bear food and habitat in the front ranges of Banff National Park, AlbertaInt. Conf. Bear Res. Manage.7199213Google Scholar
  17. Harrel, F. 2001Regression Modeling StrategiesSpringer VerlagNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  18. Herrero, S. 1985Bear Attacks. Their Causes and AvoidanceHurtig PublishersEdmontonGoogle Scholar
  19. Hooge, P.N., Eichenlaub, B. 1997Animal Movement Extension to Arcview. Ver. 1.1.U.S. Geological SurveyAnchorageAK, USAAlaska Science Center – Biological Science Office.Google Scholar
  20. Huettmann, F., Diamond, A.W. 2000Scale questions in seabird research: selected issues for the Northwest Atlantic. Chapter 6 in F. Huettmann. 2000. Environmental Determination of Seabird Distribution in the Northwest AtlanticUniversity of New BrunswickFredericton, New Brunswick, Canada480PhD Thesis, unpublished.Google Scholar
  21. Huettmann, F., Linke, J. 2003An automated method to derive habitat preferences of wildlife in GIS and telemetry studies: a flexible software tool and examples of its applicationEur. J. Wildlife Res.49219232Google Scholar
  22. Johnson, D.H. 1980The comparison of usage and availability measurements for evaluating resource preferenceEcology616571Google Scholar
  23. Knutson, M.G., Sauer, J.R., Olsen, D.A., Mossman, M.J., Hemesath, L.M., Lannoo, M.J. 1999Effects of landscape composition and wetland fragmentation on frog and toad abundance and species richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, USAConserv. Biol.1314371446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Laurin, R., Thompson, D. 1992Fundamentals of Spatial Information SystemsAcademic Press IncSan DiegoCaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  25. Levin, S.A. 1992The problem of patterns and scale in ecologyEcology7319431967Google Scholar
  26. Levine, N. 1999CrimeStat: A Spatial Statistics Program for the Analysis of Crime Incident LocationsNed Levinee & Associates AnnandaleVirginiathe National Institute of Justice Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  27. Linke, J. 2002

    Grizzly bear foothills habitat fragmentation by seismic cutlines mapped from Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) imagery

    Stenhouse, G.Munro, R.H.M. eds. Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research ProgramHintonAlbertaCanada82892001 Annual Report.
    Google Scholar
  28. Linke, J. 2003Using Landsat TM and IRS imagery to Detect Seismic Cutlines: Assessing their Effects on Landscape Structure and on Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos) Landscape Use in AlbertaUniversity of CalgaryCalgary, ABCanada149M.Sc. Thesis.Google Scholar
  29. Linke, J., Franklin, S.E. 2003

    Grizzly bear foothills habitat fragmentation by seismic cutlines: Preliminary report about parsimony of landscape metrics and cutline effects on habitat structure and foothills grizzly bear landscape use

    Stenhouse, G.B.Munro, R.H.Graham, K. eds. Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research ProgramHintonAlberta68872002 Annual Report.
    Google Scholar
  30. Mace, R.D., Waller, J.S., Manley, T.L., Ake, K., Wittinger, W.T. 1999Landscape evaluation of grizzly bear habitat in western MontanaConserv. Biol.13367377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mace, R.D., Waller, J.S., Manley, T.L., Lyon, L.J., Zuuring, H. 1996Relationship among grizzly bears, roads and habitat in the Swan Mountains, MontanaJ. Appl. Ecol.3313951404Google Scholar
  32. Manly, B.F.J., McDonald, L.L., Thomas, D.L. 1993Resource Selection by Animals: Statistical Design and Analysis for Field StudiesChapman and HallLondon, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  33. Mathsoft. 1999. S-PLUS 2000, Professional Release 2. SeattleWashington.Google Scholar
  34. Mattson, D.J., Knight, R.R., Blanchard, B.M. 1987The effects of development and primary roads on grizzly bear habitat use in Yellowstone National Park, WyomingInt. Conf. Bear Res. Manage.7259273Google Scholar
  35. McCullagh, P., Nelder, J.A. 1989Generalized linear models2Chapman & HallLondonGoogle Scholar
  36. McGarigal, K., Cushman, S.A., Neel, M.C., Ene, E. 2002FRAGSTATS: Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Categorical MapsComputer software program produced by the authors at the University of MassachusettsAmherstAvailable at the following web site: Scholar
  37. McGarigal, K., Marks, B.J. 1995FRAGSTATS. Spatial Pattern Analysis Program for Quantifying Landscape StructureU.S. Department of AgricultureForest ServicePacific Northwest Research Station122Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-351. PortlandOR.Google Scholar
  38. McGarigal, K., Romme, W.H., Crist, M., Roworth, E. 2001Cumulative effects of roads and logging on landscape structure in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado (USA)Landscape Ecol.16327349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. McLellan, B.N., Hovey, F.W. 2001Habitats selected by grizzly bears in a multiple use landscapeJ. Wildlife Manage.659299Google Scholar
  40. McLellan, B.N. and Shackleton D.M. 1989Grizzly bears and resource extracting industries: habitat displacement in response to seismic exploration, timber harvesting and road maintenanceJ. Appl. Ecol.26371380Google Scholar
  41. McLellan, B.N., Shackleton, D.M. 1988Grizzly bears and resource-extracting industries: effects of roads on behaviourhabitat use and demographyJ. Appl. Ecol.25451460Google Scholar
  42. Menard, S. 2001Applied Logistic Regression AnalysisThousand OaksCalifornia Sage USASageUniversity Paper Series on Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, 07–106.Google Scholar
  43. Munroe, R.H.M., Stenhouse, G.B. 2003

    The diet of grizzly bears in West-Central Alberta

    Stenhouse, G.B.Munro, R.H.Graham, K. eds. Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research ProgramHintonAlberta19232002 Annual Report.
    Google Scholar
  44. Nagy, J.A., Hawley, A.W.L., Barrett, M.W., Nolan, J.W. 1989Population Characteristics of Grizzly and Black Bears in West-Central AlbertaAlberta Environment CentreVegrevilleAlbertaCanadaAECV88-R1.Google Scholar
  45. Nielsen, S.E., Boyce, M.S. 2002

    Resource selection functions and population viability analyses

    Stenhouse, G.B.Munro, R.H. eds. Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research ProgramHintonAlberta1742
    Google Scholar
  46. Nielsen, S.E., Boyce, M.S., Stenhouse, G.B., Munro, R.H.M. 2002aModeling grizzly bear habitats in the Yellowhead Ecosystem of Alberta: taking autocorrelation seriouslyUrsus13153164Google Scholar
  47. Nielsen, S.E., Boyce, M.S., Stenhouse, G.B., Munro, R.H.M. 2002bDevelopment and testing of phenologically-driven grizzly bear habitat modelsEcoscience10110Google Scholar
  48. Popplewell, C. 2001Habitat structure and fragmentation of grizzly bear management units and home ranges in the Alberta Yellowhead EcosystemUniversity of CalgaryCalgary, AlbertaM.Sc. Thesis, unpublished.Google Scholar
  49. Popplewell, C., Franklin, S.E., Stenhouse, G.B., Hall-Beyer, M. 2003Using landscape structure to classify grizzly bear density in Alberta Yellowhead Ecosystem bear management unitsUrsus142734Google Scholar
  50. Potvin, F., Lowell, K., Fortin, M-J., Belanger, L. 2001How to test habitat selection at the home range scale: a resampling random windows techniqueEcoscience8399406Google Scholar
  51. Quinn, G.P., Keough, M.J. 2002Experimental Design and Data Analysis for BiologistsCambridge University PressCambridgeUnited KingdomGoogle Scholar
  52. Reed, R.A., Johnson-Barnard, J., Baker, W.L. 1996Contribution of roads to forest fragmentation in the Rocky MountainsConserv. Biol.1010981106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ripley, B.D. 1976The second-order analysis of stationarity processesJ. Appl. Problems13255266Google Scholar
  54. Schneider, R.D., Stelfox, J.B., Boutin, S., Wasel, S. 2003Managing the cumulative impacts of land uses in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin: a modelling approachConserv. Ecol.78[online] URL: Scholar
  55. Servheen, C. 1983Grizzly bear food habits, movement and habitat selection in the Mission Mountains, MontanaJ. Wildlife Manage.4710261035Google Scholar
  56. Stenhouse G., Boulanger J., Lee J., Graham K., Duval J. and Cranston J. 2005. Grizzly bear associations along the eastern slopes of Alberta. Ursus (in press).Google Scholar
  57. Stenhouse, G., Munro, R. 2000Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear research Program 2000 Annual Workplan (Year 2)Foothills Model ForestHintonAlbertaGoogle Scholar
  58. Stuart-Smith, A.K., Bradshaw, C.J.A., Boutin, S., Hebert, D.M., Rippin, A.B. 1997Woodland Caribou relative to landscape patterns in Northwest AlbertaJ. Wildlife Manage.6623633Google Scholar
  59. Turchin, P. 1998Quantitative Analysis of Movement: Measuring and Modeling Population Redistribution in Animals and PlantsSinauer Associates, Inc. PublishersSunderlandMassachusettsGoogle Scholar
  60. Venables, W.N., Ripley, B.D. 2002Modern Applied Statistics with S-Plus4Springer VerlagNew YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Waller, J.S., Mace, R.D. 1997Grizzly bear habitat selection in the Swan Mountains, MontanaJ. Wildlife Manage.6110321039Google Scholar
  62. White, G.C., Garrott, R.A. 1990Analysis of Wildlife Radio Tracking DataAcademic Press Inc.San Diego CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  63. Wiens, J.A. 1989Spatial scaling in ecologyFunct. Ecol.3385397Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Linke
    • 1
    • 2
  • Steven E. Franklin
    • 1
    • 3
  • Falk Huettmann
    • 1
    • 4
  • Gordon B. Stenhouse
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of CalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Julia LinkeCanada
  3. 3.University of SaskatchewanCanada
  4. 4.EWHALE lab- Biology and Wildlife Department, Institute of Arctic BiologyUniversity of Alaska Fairbanks AKUSA
  5. 5.Alberta Sustainable Resource DepartmentForest Wildlife Division, and Foothills Model ForestHintonCanada

Personalised recommendations